skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Magnetoelectric control of topological phases in graphene

Abstract

Topological antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics is an emerging field of research, which involves the topological electronic states coupled to the AFM order parameter known as the Néel vector. The control of these states is envisioned through manipulation of the Néel vector by spin-orbit torques driven by electric currents. In this work, we present a different approach favorable for low-power AFM spintronics, where the control of the topological states in a two-dimensional material, such as graphene, is performed via the proximity effect by the voltage induced switching of the Néel vector in an adjacent magnetoelectric AFM insulator, such as chromia. Mediated by the symmetry protected boundary magnetization and the induced Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling at the interface between graphene and chromia, the emergent topological phases in graphene can be controlled by the Néel vector. Using density functional theory and tight-binding Hamiltonian approaches, we model a graphene / Cr 2 O 3 (0001) interface and demonstrate nontrivial band gap openings in the graphene Dirac bands asymmetric between the K and K ' valleys. This gives rise to an unconventional quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) with a quantized value of 2 e 2 / h and an additional steplike feature at a value close to e 2 / 2 h , and the emergence of the spin-polarized valley Hall effect (VHE). Additionally, depending on the Néel vector orientation, we predict the appearance and transformation of different topological phases in graphene across the 180° AFM domain wall, involving the QAHE, the valley-polarized QAHE, and the quantum VHE, and the emergence of the chiral edge states along the domain wall. These topological properties are controlled by voltage through magnetoelectric switching of the AFM insulator with no need for spin-orbit torques.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1596694
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0014189; ECCS-1740136
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 100; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Anomalous Hall effect; Antiferromagnetism; Electronic structure; Exchange interaction; First-principles calculations; Quantum anomalous Hall effect; Rashba coupling; Spin polarization; Spintronics; Valleytronics; Physical Systems; Graphene

Citation Formats

Takenaka, Hiroyuki, Sandhoefner, Shane, Kovalev, Alexey A., and Tsymbal, Evgeny Y. Magnetoelectric control of topological phases in graphene. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.100.125156.
Takenaka, Hiroyuki, Sandhoefner, Shane, Kovalev, Alexey A., & Tsymbal, Evgeny Y. Magnetoelectric control of topological phases in graphene. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.100.125156
Takenaka, Hiroyuki, Sandhoefner, Shane, Kovalev, Alexey A., and Tsymbal, Evgeny Y. Wed . "Magnetoelectric control of topological phases in graphene". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.100.125156. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1596694.
@article{osti_1596694,
title = {Magnetoelectric control of topological phases in graphene},
author = {Takenaka, Hiroyuki and Sandhoefner, Shane and Kovalev, Alexey A. and Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.},
abstractNote = {Topological antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics is an emerging field of research, which involves the topological electronic states coupled to the AFM order parameter known as the Néel vector. The control of these states is envisioned through manipulation of the Néel vector by spin-orbit torques driven by electric currents. In this work, we present a different approach favorable for low-power AFM spintronics, where the control of the topological states in a two-dimensional material, such as graphene, is performed via the proximity effect by the voltage induced switching of the Néel vector in an adjacent magnetoelectric AFM insulator, such as chromia. Mediated by the symmetry protected boundary magnetization and the induced Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling at the interface between graphene and chromia, the emergent topological phases in graphene can be controlled by the Néel vector. Using density functional theory and tight-binding Hamiltonian approaches, we model a graphene/Cr2O3 (0001) interface and demonstrate nontrivial band gap openings in the graphene Dirac bands asymmetric between the K and K' valleys. This gives rise to an unconventional quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) with a quantized value of 2e2/h and an additional steplike feature at a value close to e2/2h, and the emergence of the spin-polarized valley Hall effect (VHE). Additionally, depending on the Néel vector orientation, we predict the appearance and transformation of different topological phases in graphene across the 180° AFM domain wall, involving the QAHE, the valley-polarized QAHE, and the quantum VHE, and the emergence of the chiral edge states along the domain wall. These topological properties are controlled by voltage through magnetoelectric switching of the AFM insulator with no need for spin-orbit torques.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.100.125156},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 12,
volume = 100,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Antiferromagnetic metal spintronics
journal, August 2011

  • MacDonald, A. H.; Tsoi, M.
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369, Issue 1948
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0014

Antiferromagnetic spintronics
journal, March 2016

  • Jungwirth, T.; Marti, X.; Wadley, P.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.18

Antiferromagnetic spintronics
journal, February 2018


The multiple directions of antiferromagnetic spintronics
journal, March 2018


The physics of quantum materials
journal, October 2017


The electronic properties of graphene
journal, January 2009

  • Castro Neto, A. H.; Guinea, F.; Peres, N. M. R.
  • Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 81, Issue 1, p. 109-162
  • DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.81.109

Colloquium: Topological insulators
journal, November 2010


Weyl and Dirac semimetals in three-dimensional solids
journal, January 2018


Beyond Dirac and Weyl fermions: Unconventional quasiparticles in conventional crystals
journal, July 2016


Spintronics and pseudospintronics in graphene and topological insulators
journal, April 2012

  • Pesin, Dmytro; MacDonald, Allan H.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3305

Magnetization switching through giant spin–orbit torque in a magnetically doped topological insulator heterostructure
journal, April 2014

  • Fan, Yabin; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Kou, Xufeng
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3973

Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator
journal, July 2014

  • Mellnik, A. R.; Lee, J. S.; Richardella, A.
  • Nature, Vol. 511, Issue 7510
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13534

Route towards Dirac and Weyl antiferromagnetic spintronics: Route towards Dirac and Weyl antiferromagnetic spintronics
journal, March 2017

  • Šmejkal, Libor; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, Jairo
  • physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201700044

Topological antiferromagnetic spintronics
journal, March 2018


Electric Control of Dirac Quasiparticles by Spin-Orbit Torque in an Antiferromagnet
journal, March 2017


Dirac Nodal Line Metal for Topological Antiferromagnetic Spintronics
journal, February 2019


Relativistic Néel-Order Fields Induced by Electrical Current in Antiferromagnets
journal, October 2014


Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet
journal, January 2016


Writing and reading antiferromagnetic Mn2Au by Néel spin-orbit torques and large anisotropic magnetoresistance
journal, January 2018


Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature
journal, June 2010

  • He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ning
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2785

Macroscopic magnetic fields of antiferromagnets
journal, May 1996

  • Andreev, A. F.
  • Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters, Vol. 63, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1134/1.566978

Equilibrium Magnetization at the Boundary of a Magnetoelectric Antiferromagnet
journal, October 2010


Imaging and Control of Surface Magnetization Domains in a Magnetoelectric Antiferromagnet
journal, February 2011


Moving towards the magnetoelectric graphene transistor
journal, October 2017

  • Cao, Shi; Xiao, Zhiyong; Kwan, Chun-Pui
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 111, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4999643

Model for a Quantum Hall Effect without Landau Levels: Condensed-Matter Realization of the "Parity Anomaly"
journal, October 1988


Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Graphene
journal, November 2005


Spin-orbit gap of graphene: First-principles calculations
journal, January 2007


Band-structure topologies of graphene: Spin-orbit coupling effects from first principles
journal, December 2009


Spin–orbit proximity effect in graphene
journal, September 2014

  • Avsar, A.; Tan, J. Y.; Taychatanapat, T.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5875

Graphene on transition-metal dichalcogenides: A platform for proximity spin-orbit physics and optospintronics
journal, October 2015


Proximity-Induced Ferromagnetism in Graphene Revealed by the Anomalous Hall Effect
journal, January 2015


Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Graphene Proximity Coupled to an Antiferromagnetic Insulator
journal, March 2014


Mixed Weyl semimetals and low-dissipation magnetization control in insulators by spin–orbit torques
journal, November 2017


Graphene spintronics
journal, October 2014

  • Han, Wei; Kawakami, Roland K.; Gmitra, Martin
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.214

Spin-Orbit Coupling in Hydrogenated Graphene
journal, June 2013


Quantum Hall effect in graphene with interface-induced spin-orbit coupling
journal, February 2018


Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory
journal, January 2017

  • Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13985

Valley filter and valley valve in graphene
journal, February 2007

  • Rycerz, A.; Tworzydło, J.; Beenakker, C. W. J.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 3, Issue 3, p. 172-175
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys547

Valley-Contrasting Physics in Graphene: Magnetic Moment and Topological Transport
journal, December 2007


Detecting topological currents in graphene superlattices
journal, September 2014


Topological Valley Currents in Gapped Dirac Materials
journal, June 2015


Theory of Valley Hall Conductivity in Graphene with Gap
journal, November 2015


Valley-Polarized Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Silicene
journal, March 2014


Dirac-fermion-mediated ferromagnetism in a topological insulator
journal, August 2012

  • Checkelsky, Joseph G.; Ye, Jianting; Onose, Yoshinori
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 8, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2388

Large discrete jumps observed in the transition between Chern states in a ferromagnetic topological insulator
journal, July 2016

  • Liu, Minhao; Wang, Wudi; Richardella, Anthony R.
  • Science Advances, Vol. 2, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600167

Quantized chiral edge conduction on domain walls of a magnetic topological insulator
journal, December 2017


Magnetoelectric domain wall dynamics and its implications for magnetoelectric memory
journal, March 2016

  • Belashchenko, K. D.; Tchernyshyov, O.; Kovalev, Alexey A.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4944996

Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators
journal, June 2010


Experimental Observation of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in a Magnetic Topological Insulator
journal, March 2013


Chiral transport along magnetic domain walls in the quantum anomalous Hall effect
journal, December 2017


Observation of the quantum valley Hall state in ballistic graphene superlattices
journal, May 2018

  • Komatsu, Katsuyosih; Morita, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Eiichiro
  • Science Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaq0194

Transport Measurements Across a Tunable Potential Barrier in Graphene
journal, June 2007


Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set
journal, October 1996


Density-functional theory and strong interactions: Orbital ordering in Mott-Hubbard insulators
journal, August 1995


Projector augmented-wave method
journal, December 1994


Microscopic origin of the structural phase transitions at the Cr 2 O 3 (0001) surface
journal, October 2012


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Unveiling multiferroic proximity effect in graphene
    journal, December 2019


    Quantum anomalous Hall effect by coupling heavy atomic layers with CrI 3
    journal, November 2019