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Title: Applying Noether’s Theorem to Matter in the Milky Way: Evidence for External Perturbations and Non-steady-state Effects from Gaia Data Release 2

Abstract

We apply Noether's theorem to observations of main-sequence stars from the Gaia Data Release 2 archive to probe the matter distribution function of the Galaxy. That is, we examine the axial symmetry of stars at vertical heights $z$, $$0.2 \le |z| \le 3$$ kpc, to probe the quality of the angular momentum $$L_z$$ as an integral of motion. The failure of this symmetry test would speak to a Milky Way, in both its visible and dark matter, that is not isolated and/or not in steady state. The left-right symmetry-breaking pattern we have observed, north and south, reveals both effects, with a measured deviation from symmetry of typically 0.5%. We show that a prolate form of the gravitational distortion of the Milky Way by the Large Magellanic Cloud, determined from fits to the Orphan stream by Erkal et al., 2019, is compatible with the size and sign of the axial-symmetry-breaking effects we have discovered in our sample of up to 14.4 million main-sequence stars, speaking to a distortion of an emergent, rather than static, nature.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)
  2. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
OSTI Identifier:
1596057
Report Number(s):
arXiv:2001.01399; FERMILAB-PUB-20-013-SCD
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; oai:inspirehep.net:1774135; TRN: US2101839
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; FG02-96ER40989
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 890; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Gardner, Susan, Hinkel, Austin, and Yanny, Brian. Applying Noether’s Theorem to Matter in the Milky Way: Evidence for External Perturbations and Non-steady-state Effects from Gaia Data Release 2. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab66c8.
Gardner, Susan, Hinkel, Austin, & Yanny, Brian. Applying Noether’s Theorem to Matter in the Milky Way: Evidence for External Perturbations and Non-steady-state Effects from Gaia Data Release 2. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab66c8
Gardner, Susan, Hinkel, Austin, and Yanny, Brian. Tue . "Applying Noether’s Theorem to Matter in the Milky Way: Evidence for External Perturbations and Non-steady-state Effects from Gaia Data Release 2". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab66c8. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1596057.
@article{osti_1596057,
title = {Applying Noether’s Theorem to Matter in the Milky Way: Evidence for External Perturbations and Non-steady-state Effects from Gaia Data Release 2},
author = {Gardner, Susan and Hinkel, Austin and Yanny, Brian},
abstractNote = {We apply Noether's theorem to observations of main-sequence stars from the Gaia Data Release 2 archive to probe the matter distribution function of the Galaxy. That is, we examine the axial symmetry of stars at vertical heights $z$, $0.2 \le |z| \le 3$ kpc, to probe the quality of the angular momentum $L_z$ as an integral of motion. The failure of this symmetry test would speak to a Milky Way, in both its visible and dark matter, that is not isolated and/or not in steady state. The left-right symmetry-breaking pattern we have observed, north and south, reveals both effects, with a measured deviation from symmetry of typically 0.5%. We show that a prolate form of the gravitational distortion of the Milky Way by the Large Magellanic Cloud, determined from fits to the Orphan stream by Erkal et al., 2019, is compatible with the size and sign of the axial-symmetry-breaking effects we have discovered in our sample of up to 14.4 million main-sequence stars, speaking to a distortion of an emergent, rather than static, nature.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab66c8},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 890,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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