skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors

Abstract

Chemical doping of organic semiconductors using molecular dopants plays a key role in the fabrication of efficient organic electronic devices. While a variety of stable molecular p-dopants have been developed and successfully deployed in devices in the past decade, air-stable molecular n-dopants suitable for materials with low electron affinity are still elusive. In this work we demonstrate that photo-activation of a cleavable air-stable dimeric dopant can result in kinetically stable and efficient n-doping of host semiconductors, whose reduction potentials are beyond the thermodynamic reach of the dimer’s effective reducing strength. Electron-transport layers doped in this manner are used to fabricate high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes. This strategy thus enables a new paradigm for using air-stable molecular dopants to improve conductivity in, and provide ohmic contacts to, organic semiconductors with very low electron affinity.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  2. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany). German Research Centre for Materials and Energy; Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)
  3. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1595457
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012458; EE0006672; DMR-1305247; DMR-1506097
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1476-1122
Publisher:
Springer Nature - Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Lin, Xin, Wegner, Berthold, Lee, Kyung Min, Fusella, Michael A., Zhang, Fengyu, Moudgil, Karttikay, Rand, Barry P., Barlow, Stephen, Marder, Seth R., Koch, Norbert, and Kahn, Antoine. Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/nmat5027.
Lin, Xin, Wegner, Berthold, Lee, Kyung Min, Fusella, Michael A., Zhang, Fengyu, Moudgil, Karttikay, Rand, Barry P., Barlow, Stephen, Marder, Seth R., Koch, Norbert, & Kahn, Antoine. Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors. United States. doi:10.1038/nmat5027.
Lin, Xin, Wegner, Berthold, Lee, Kyung Min, Fusella, Michael A., Zhang, Fengyu, Moudgil, Karttikay, Rand, Barry P., Barlow, Stephen, Marder, Seth R., Koch, Norbert, and Kahn, Antoine. Mon . "Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors". United States. doi:10.1038/nmat5027. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1595457.
@article{osti_1595457,
title = {Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors},
author = {Lin, Xin and Wegner, Berthold and Lee, Kyung Min and Fusella, Michael A. and Zhang, Fengyu and Moudgil, Karttikay and Rand, Barry P. and Barlow, Stephen and Marder, Seth R. and Koch, Norbert and Kahn, Antoine},
abstractNote = {Chemical doping of organic semiconductors using molecular dopants plays a key role in the fabrication of efficient organic electronic devices. While a variety of stable molecular p-dopants have been developed and successfully deployed in devices in the past decade, air-stable molecular n-dopants suitable for materials with low electron affinity are still elusive. In this work we demonstrate that photo-activation of a cleavable air-stable dimeric dopant can result in kinetically stable and efficient n-doping of host semiconductors, whose reduction potentials are beyond the thermodynamic reach of the dimer’s effective reducing strength. Electron-transport layers doped in this manner are used to fabricate high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes. This strategy thus enables a new paradigm for using air-stable molecular dopants to improve conductivity in, and provide ohmic contacts to, organic semiconductors with very low electron affinity.},
doi = {10.1038/nmat5027},
journal = {Nature Materials},
number = 12,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 20 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Contorted Hexabenzocoronenes with Extended Heterocyclic Moieties Improve Visible-Light Absorption and Performance in Organic Solar Cells
journal, January 2016


Use of a 1 H -Benzoimidazole Derivative as an n -Type Dopant and To Enable Air-Stable Solution-Processed n -Channel Organic Thin-Film Transistors
journal, July 2010

  • Wei, Peng; Oh, Joon Hak; Dong, Guifang
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja103173m

Pyronin B as a donor for n -type doping of organic thin films
journal, June 2003

  • Werner, A. G.; Li, F.; Harada, K.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 82, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1583872

Doping of organic semiconductors
journal, December 2012


Trap-free electron transport in poly( p -phenylene vinylene) by deactivation of traps with n -type doping
journal, February 2010


Molecular n-Type Doping of 1,4,5,8-Naphthalene Tetracarboxylic Dianhydride by Pyronin B Studied Using Direct and Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopies
journal, April 2006

  • Chan, C. K.; Kim, E. -G.; Brédas, J. -L.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500402

High-current Injection and Transport on Order of kA/cm 2 in Organic Light-emitting Diodes Having Mixed Organic/Organic Heterojunction Interfaces
journal, September 2007

  • Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 46, Issue No. 35
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.46.L861

Effective Solution- and Vacuum-Processed n-Doping by Dimers of Benzimidazoline Radicals
journal, April 2014

  • Naab, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Siyuan; Vandewal, Koen
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400668

Electron-hole interaction energy in the organic molecular semiconductor PTCDA
journal, June 1997


Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes
journal, September 2014

  • Murawski, Caroline; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4896127

Doped organic transistors operating in the inversion and depletion regime
journal, November 2013

  • Lüssem, Björn; Tietze, Max L.; Kleemann, Hans
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3775

n-Doping of Organic Electronic Materials using Air-Stable Organometallics
journal, November 2011

  • Guo, Song; Kim, Sang Bok; Mohapatra, Swagat K.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 5, p. 699-703
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103238

Doped polymer semiconductors with ultrahigh and ultralow work functions for ohmic contacts
journal, November 2016

  • Tang, Cindy G.; Ang, Mervin C. Y.; Choo, Kim-Kian
  • Nature, Vol. 539, Issue 7630
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature20133

White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency
journal, May 2009

  • Reineke, Sebastian; Lindner, Frank; Schwartz, Gregor
  • Nature, Vol. 459, Issue 7244
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08003

Improved organic p-i-n type solar cells with n-doped fluorinated hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives HATNA-F 6 and HATNA-F 12 as transparent electron transport material
journal, February 2014

  • Selzer, Franz; Falkenberg, Christiane; Hamburger, Manuel
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4864260

Efficient two layer leds on a polymer blend basis
journal, June 1995


High performance polythiophene thin-film transistors doped with very small amounts of an electron acceptor
journal, February 2008

  • Ma, Liang; Lee, Wi Hyoung; Park, Yeong Don
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2883927

Dimers of Nineteen-Electron Sandwich Compounds: Crystal and Electronic Structures, and Comparison of Reducing Strengths
journal, October 2014

  • Mohapatra, Swagat K.; Fonari, Alexandr; Risko, Chad
  • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 20, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201404007

Highly Efficient Organic Devices Based on Electrically Doped Transport Layers
journal, April 2007

  • Walzer, K.; Maennig, B.; Pfeiffer, M.
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 107, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr050156n

High Mobility N-Type Transistors Based on Solution-Sheared Doped 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene Thin Films
journal, July 2013

  • Naab, Benjamin D.; Himmelberger, Scott; Diao, Ying
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 33
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201205098

Halogenation of a Nonplanar Molecular Semiconductor to Tune Energy Levels and Bandgaps for Electron Transport
journal, February 2015


2-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1 H -benzoimidazol-3-ium Iodide as a New Air-Stable n-Type Dopant for Vacuum-Processed Organic Semiconductor Thin Films
journal, February 2012

  • Wei, Peng; Menke, Torben; Naab, Benjamin D.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja211382x

Electron Transport Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
journal, November 2004

  • Kulkarni, Abhishek P.; Tonzola, Christopher J.; Babel, Amit
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm049473l

Improved Efficiency in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using Host Materials of Lower Triplet Energy than the Phosphorescent Blue Emitter
journal, July 2011

  • Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Von Ruden, Amber
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100586

Leuco Crystal Violet as a Dopant for n-Doping of Organic Thin Films of Fullerene C 60
journal, November 2004

  • Li, Fenghong; Werner, Ansgar; Pfeiffer, Martin
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 108, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp0478615

Mechanistic Study on the Solution-Phase n-Doping of 1,3-Dimethyl-2-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1 H -benzoimidazole Derivatives
journal, September 2013

  • Naab, Benjamin D.; Guo, Song; Olthof, Selina
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 40
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja403906d

Toward a comprehensive understanding of molecular doping organic semiconductors (review)
journal, October 2015


Solution doping of organic semiconductors using air-stable n-dopants
journal, February 2012

  • Qi, Yabing; Mohapatra, Swagat K.; Bok Kim, Sang
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3689760

p-type doping effect on the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells
journal, December 2011

  • Lei, Xiaofei; Zhang, Fute; Song, Tao
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3669393

Extremely low-voltage driving of organic light-emitting diodes with a Cs-doped phenyldipyrenylphosphine oxide layer as an electron-injection layer
journal, January 2005

  • Oyamada, Takahito; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Chihaya
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1852707

n-Doping of Organic Electronic Materials Using Air-Stable Organometallics: A Mechanistic Study of Reduction by Dimeric Sandwich Compounds
journal, October 2012

  • Guo, Song; Mohapatra, Swagat K.; Romanov, Alexander
  • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 18, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201202591

Dopant controlled trap-filling and conductivity enhancement in an electron-transport polymer
journal, April 2015

  • Higgins, Andrew; Mohapatra, Swagat K.; Barlow, Stephen
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 106, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4918627

Molecular n-type doping for air-stable electron transport in vacuum-processed n-channel organic transistors
journal, December 2010

  • Oh, Joon Hak; Wei, Peng; Bao, Zhenan
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3527972

Ultralow Doping in Organic Semiconductors: Evidence of Trap Filling
journal, October 2012


Solution phase n-doping of C 60 and PCBM using tetrabutylammonium fluoride
journal, January 2014

  • Weber, C. D.; Bradley, C.; Lonergan, M. C.
  • J. Mater. Chem. A, Vol. 2, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/C3TA14132B

Passivation of trap states in unpurified and purified C 60 and the influence on organic field-effect transistor performance
journal, December 2012

  • Olthof, Selina; Singh, Sanjeev; Mohapatra, Swagat K.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4772551

Dipyrazolopyridine derivatives as bright blue electroluminescent materials
journal, January 2000

  • Tao, Y. T.; Balasubramaniam, E.; Danel, A.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1288811

Solubility-Limited Extrinsic n-Type Doping of a High Electron Mobility Polymer for Thermoelectric Applications
journal, January 2014

  • Schlitz, Ruth A.; Brunetti, Fulvio G.; Glaudell, Anne M.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304866

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Molecular n-Type Doping of 1,4,5,8-Naphthalene Tetracarboxylic Dianhydride by Pyronin B Studied Using Direct and Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopies
    journal, April 2006

    • Chan, C. K.; Kim, E. -G.; Brédas, J. -L.
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500402

    Improved Efficiency in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using Host Materials of Lower Triplet Energy than the Phosphorescent Blue Emitter
    journal, July 2011

    • Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Von Ruden, Amber
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201100586

    Deep‐Red/Near‐Infrared Electroluminescence from Single‐Component Charge‐Transfer Complex via Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel
    journal, July 2019

    • Chen, Wen‐Cheng; Huang, Bin; Ni, Shao‐Fei
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 38
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201903112

    Efficient two layer leds on a polymer blend basis
    journal, June 1995


    n-Doping of Organic Electronic Materials using Air-Stable Organometallics
    journal, November 2011

    • Guo, Song; Kim, Sang Bok; Mohapatra, Swagat K.
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 5, p. 699-703
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103238

    High Mobility N-Type Transistors Based on Solution-Sheared Doped 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene Thin Films
    journal, July 2013

    • Naab, Benjamin D.; Himmelberger, Scott; Diao, Ying
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 33
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201205098

    Solubility-Limited Extrinsic n-Type Doping of a High Electron Mobility Polymer for Thermoelectric Applications
    journal, January 2014

    • Schlitz, Ruth A.; Brunetti, Fulvio G.; Glaudell, Anne M.
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201304866

    Effective Solution- and Vacuum-Processed n-Doping by Dimers of Benzimidazoline Radicals
    journal, April 2014

    • Naab, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Siyuan; Vandewal, Koen
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 25
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400668

    Interface Characterization and Control of 2D Materials and Heterostructures
    journal, July 2018


    Tunable Moiré Superlattice of Artificially Twisted Monolayers
    journal, July 2019

    • Chen, Po‐Yen; Zhang, Xin‐Quan; Lai, Ying‐Yu
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 31, Issue 37
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201901077

    n-Doping of Organic Electronic Materials Using Air-Stable Organometallics: A Mechanistic Study of Reduction by Dimeric Sandwich Compounds
    journal, October 2012

    • Guo, Song; Mohapatra, Swagat K.; Romanov, Alexander
    • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 18, Issue 46
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201202591

    Dimers of Nineteen-Electron Sandwich Compounds: Crystal and Electronic Structures, and Comparison of Reducing Strengths
    journal, October 2014

    • Mohapatra, Swagat K.; Fonari, Alexandr; Risko, Chad
    • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 20, Issue 47
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201404007

    Doping of organic semiconductors
    journal, December 2012


    Toward a comprehensive understanding of molecular doping organic semiconductors (review)
    journal, October 2015


    Halogenation of a Nonplanar Molecular Semiconductor to Tune Energy Levels and Bandgaps for Electron Transport
    journal, February 2015


    Contorted Hexabenzocoronenes with Extended Heterocyclic Moieties Improve Visible-Light Absorption and Performance in Organic Solar Cells
    journal, January 2016


    Electron Transport Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
    journal, November 2004

    • Kulkarni, Abhishek P.; Tonzola, Christopher J.; Babel, Amit
    • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1021/cm049473l

    Highly Efficient Organic Devices Based on Electrically Doped Transport Layers
    journal, April 2007

    • Walzer, K.; Maennig, B.; Pfeiffer, M.
    • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 107, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1021/cr050156n

    Use of a 1 H -Benzoimidazole Derivative as an n -Type Dopant and To Enable Air-Stable Solution-Processed n -Channel Organic Thin-Film Transistors
    journal, July 2010

    • Wei, Peng; Oh, Joon Hak; Dong, Guifang
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 26
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja103173m

    2-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1 H -benzoimidazol-3-ium Iodide as a New Air-Stable n-Type Dopant for Vacuum-Processed Organic Semiconductor Thin Films
    journal, February 2012

    • Wei, Peng; Menke, Torben; Naab, Benjamin D.
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja211382x

    Mechanistic Study on the Solution-Phase n-Doping of 1,3-Dimethyl-2-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1 H -benzoimidazole Derivatives
    journal, September 2013

    • Naab, Benjamin D.; Guo, Song; Olthof, Selina
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 40
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja403906d

    Leuco Crystal Violet as a Dopant for n-Doping of Organic Thin Films of Fullerene C 60
    journal, November 2004

    • Li, Fenghong; Werner, Ansgar; Pfeiffer, Martin
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 108, Issue 44
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp0478615

    White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency
    journal, May 2009

    • Reineke, Sebastian; Lindner, Frank; Schwartz, Gregor
    • Nature, Vol. 459, Issue 7244
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature08003

    Doped polymer semiconductors with ultrahigh and ultralow work functions for ohmic contacts
    journal, November 2016

    • Tang, Cindy G.; Ang, Mervin C. Y.; Choo, Kim-Kian
    • Nature, Vol. 539, Issue 7630
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature20133

    Doped organic transistors operating in the inversion and depletion regime
    journal, November 2013

    • Lüssem, Björn; Tietze, Max L.; Kleemann, Hans
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 4, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3775

    Dipyrazolopyridine derivatives as bright blue electroluminescent materials
    journal, January 2000

    • Tao, Y. T.; Balasubramaniam, E.; Danel, A.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1288811

    Pyronin B as a donor for n -type doping of organic thin films
    journal, June 2003

    • Werner, A. G.; Li, F.; Harada, K.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 82, Issue 25
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1583872

    Extremely low-voltage driving of organic light-emitting diodes with a Cs-doped phenyldipyrenylphosphine oxide layer as an electron-injection layer
    journal, January 2005

    • Oyamada, Takahito; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Chihaya
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1852707

    High performance polythiophene thin-film transistors doped with very small amounts of an electron acceptor
    journal, February 2008

    • Ma, Liang; Lee, Wi Hyoung; Park, Yeong Don
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2883927

    Molecular n-type doping for air-stable electron transport in vacuum-processed n-channel organic transistors
    journal, December 2010

    • Oh, Joon Hak; Wei, Peng; Bao, Zhenan
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3527972

    p-type doping effect on the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells
    journal, December 2011

    • Lei, Xiaofei; Zhang, Fute; Song, Tao
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3669393

    Solution doping of organic semiconductors using air-stable n-dopants
    journal, February 2012

    • Qi, Yabing; Mohapatra, Swagat K.; Bok Kim, Sang
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3689760

    Passivation of trap states in unpurified and purified C 60 and the influence on organic field-effect transistor performance
    journal, December 2012

    • Olthof, Selina; Singh, Sanjeev; Mohapatra, Swagat K.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 25
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4772551

    Improved organic p-i-n type solar cells with n-doped fluorinated hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives HATNA-F 6 and HATNA-F 12 as transparent electron transport material
    journal, February 2014

    • Selzer, Franz; Falkenberg, Christiane; Hamburger, Manuel
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4864260

    Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes
    journal, September 2014

    • Murawski, Caroline; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4896127

    Dopant controlled trap-filling and conductivity enhancement in an electron-transport polymer
    journal, April 2015

    • Higgins, Andrew; Mohapatra, Swagat K.; Barlow, Stephen
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 106, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4918627