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Title: Physics of runaway electrons in tokamaks

Abstract

This review covers basic physics ingredients of the runaway phenomenon and the ongoing efforts (experimental and theoretical) aimed at runaway electron taming in the next generation tokamaks. We emphasize the prevailing physics themes of the last 20 years: the hot-tail mechanism of runaway production, runaway electron interaction with impurity ions, the role of synchrotron radiation in runaway kinetics, runaway electron transport in presence of magnetic fluctuations, micro-instabilities of runaway electrons in magnetized plasmas, and vertical stability of the plasma with runaway electrons. Here, the review also discusses the implications of the runaway phenomenon for ITER and the current strategy of runaway electron mitigation.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
  2. Max-Planck-Inst. für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany)
  3. Univ. of California - San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  4. ITER Organization, St Paul Lez Durance (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24); ITER Organization
OSTI Identifier:
1595259
Grant/Contract Number:  
[SC0016283; FG02-04ER54742; ITER/CT/15/4300001178]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 59; Journal Issue: 8]; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; thermal quench; runaway avalanche; current quench; hot tail; disruption mitigation

Citation Formats

Breizman, Boris N., Aleynikov, Pavel, Hollmann, Eric M., and Lehnen, Michael. Physics of runaway electrons in tokamaks. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ab1822.
Breizman, Boris N., Aleynikov, Pavel, Hollmann, Eric M., & Lehnen, Michael. Physics of runaway electrons in tokamaks. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ab1822.
Breizman, Boris N., Aleynikov, Pavel, Hollmann, Eric M., and Lehnen, Michael. Wed . "Physics of runaway electrons in tokamaks". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ab1822.
@article{osti_1595259,
title = {Physics of runaway electrons in tokamaks},
author = {Breizman, Boris N. and Aleynikov, Pavel and Hollmann, Eric M. and Lehnen, Michael},
abstractNote = {This review covers basic physics ingredients of the runaway phenomenon and the ongoing efforts (experimental and theoretical) aimed at runaway electron taming in the next generation tokamaks. We emphasize the prevailing physics themes of the last 20 years: the hot-tail mechanism of runaway production, runaway electron interaction with impurity ions, the role of synchrotron radiation in runaway kinetics, runaway electron transport in presence of magnetic fluctuations, micro-instabilities of runaway electrons in magnetized plasmas, and vertical stability of the plasma with runaway electrons. Here, the review also discusses the implications of the runaway phenomenon for ITER and the current strategy of runaway electron mitigation.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/ab1822},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = [8],
volume = [59],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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Runaway electrons and ITER
journal, March 2017


An advection–diffusion model for cross-field runaway electron transport in perturbed magnetic fields
journal, November 2016


Zur Theorie des Durchgangs schneller Korpuskularstrahlen durch Materie
journal, January 1930


The kinetic theory of runaway electron beam instability in a tokamak
journal, March 1978


Fokker-Planck simulations mylb of knock-on electron runaway avalanche and bursts in tokamaks
journal, November 1998


Characterization of MHD activity and its influence on radiation asymmetries during massive gas injection in DIII-D
journal, June 2015


Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of massive gas injection into Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D plasmas
journal, May 2008

  • Izzo, V. A.; Whyte, D. G.; Granetz, R. S.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2841526

Relativistic limitations on runaway electrons
journal, June 1975


Runaway Electrons in an Ideal Lorentz Plasma
journal, January 1964

  • Kruskal, Martin D.; Bernstein, Ira B.
  • Physics of Fluids, Vol. 7, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1711213

Spatiotemporal evolution of runaway electrons from synchrotron images in Alcator C-Mod
journal, October 2018

  • Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Hoppe, M.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 60, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aae6ba

Quasi-linear analysis of whistler waves driven by relativistic runaway beams in tokamaks
journal, February 2008


Applying the new gamma ray imager diagnostic to measurements of runaway electron Bremsstrahlung radiation in the DIII-D Tokamak (invited)
journal, August 2016

  • Cooper, C. M.; Pace, D. C.; Paz-Soldan, C.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4961288

Collisional avalanche exponentiation of runaway electrons in electrified plasmas
journal, January 1993


Soft x-ray array system with variable filters for the DIII-D tokamak
journal, November 2011

  • Hollmann, E. M.; Chousal, L.; Fisher, R. K.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 82, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3660816

Oblique electron cyclotron emission for electron distribution studies (invited)
journal, January 1997

  • Preische, S.; Efthimion, P. C.; Kaye, S. M.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 68, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1147841

The Scattering of Fast Electrons by Atomic Nuclei
journal, June 1929

  • Mott, N. F.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 124, Issue 794
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1929.0127

Damping of relativistic electron beams by synchrotron radiation
journal, December 2001

  • Andersson, F.; Helander, P.; Eriksson, L. -G.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 8, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1418242

Effect of applied toroidal electric field on the growth/decay of plateau-phase runaway electron currents in DIII-D
journal, September 2011


Electron Heat Transport in a Tokamak with Destroyed Magnetic Surfaces
journal, January 1978


Theory for avalanche of runaway electrons in tokamaks
journal, October 1997


Experimental Observation of Increased Threshold Electric Field for Runaway Generation due to Synchrotron Radiation Losses in the FTU Tokamak
journal, October 2010


Plasma shut-down with fast impurity puff on ASDEX Upgrade
journal, July 2007


On the avalanche generation of runaway electrons during tokamak disruptions
journal, August 2015

  • Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Lehnen, M.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4927773

Runaway electrons and the evolution of the plasma current in tokamak disruptions
journal, October 2006

  • Smith, H.; Helander, P.; Eriksson, L. -G.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 13, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2358110

Space dependent, full orbit effects on runaway electron dynamics in tokamak plasmas
journal, April 2017

  • Carbajal, L.; del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Spong, D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 24, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4981209

Impact and mitigation of disruptions with the ITER-like wall in JET
journal, August 2013


Simulation of runaway electrons during tokamak disruptions
journal, August 2003


An ITPA joint experiment to study runaway electron generation and suppression
journal, July 2014

  • Granetz, R. S.; Esposito, B.; Kim, J. H.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 21, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4886802

Simulation of runaway electron generation during plasma shutdown by impurity injection in ITER
journal, February 2011


ASCOT: Solving the kinetic equation of minority particle species in tokamak plasmas
journal, April 2014


Survey of disruption causes at JET
journal, April 2011


Update on the status of the ITER ECE diagnostic design
journal, January 2017


Effect of partially ionized impurities and radiation on the effective critical electric field for runaway generation
journal, June 2018

  • Hesslow, L.; Embréus, O.; Wilkie, G. J.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 60, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aac33e

Status of research toward the ITER disruption mitigation system
journal, November 2014

  • Hollmann, E. M.; Aleynikov, P. B.; Fülöp, T.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4901251

Disruption scenarios, their mitigation and operation window in ITER
journal, March 2007


Control of post-disruption runaway electron beams in DIII-D
journal, May 2012

  • Eidietis, N. W.; Commaux, N.; Hollmann, E. M.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 19, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3695000

High field side measurements of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission on TCV plasmas with ECH and ECCD
journal, September 2002


Experiments in DIII-D toward achieving rapid shutdown with runaway electron suppression
journal, May 2010

  • Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, N.; Eidietis, N. W.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3309426

Conceptual design of the radial gamma ray spectrometers system for α particle and runaway electron measurements at ITER
journal, May 2017


Energy limits on runaway electrons in tokamak plasmas
journal, January 1999

  • Martín-Solís, J. R.; Esposito, B.; Sánchez, R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.873276

Use of Ar pellet ablation rate to estimate initial runaway electron seed population in DIII-D rapid shutdown experiments
journal, October 2016


Alcator C vertical viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic
journal, August 1986

  • Kato, K.; Hutchinson, I. H.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 57, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1138806

Plasma ion heating by cryogenic pellet injection
journal, January 2019

  • Aleynikov, Pavel; Breizman, Boris N.; Helander, Per
  • Journal of Plasma Physics, Vol. 85, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1017/S0022377818001332

Electron and Ion Runaway in a Fully Ionized Gas. I
journal, July 1959