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Title: Bright Gamma-Ray Flares Observed in GRB 131108A

Abstract

GRB 131108A is a bright long gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by the Large Area Telescope and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Dedicated temporal and spectral analyses reveal three γ-ray flares dominating above 100 MeV, which are not directly related to the prompt emission in the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor band (10 keV–10 MeV). The high-energy light curve of GRB 131108A (100 MeV–10 GeV) shows an unusual evolution: a steep decay, followed by three flares with an underlying emission, and then a long-lasting decay phase. The detailed analysis of the γ-ray flares finds that the three flares are 6–20 times brighter than the underlying emission and are similar to each other. The fluence of each flare, (1.6 ~ 2.0) × 10 -6 erg cm -2, is comparable to that of emission during the steep decay phase, 1.7 × 10 -6 erg cm -2. The total fluence from three γ-ray flares is 5.3 × 10 -6 erg cm -2. The three γ-ray flares show properties similar to the usual X-ray flares that are sharp flux increases, occurring in ~50% of afterglows, in some cases well after the prompt emission. Finally, the temporal and spectral indices during the early steep decay phase and the decaying phase of each flare show the consistency with a relation of the curvature effect ($$\hat{\alpha }$$ = 2 + $$\hat{\beta }$$), which is the first observational evidence of the high-latitude emission in the GeV energy band.

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi-LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1595251
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 886; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Ajello, M., Arimoto, M., Asano, K., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Berretta, A., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Chen, S., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Costantin, D., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Torre Luque, P. de la, Palma, F. de, Lalla, N. Di, Venere, L. Di, Dirirsa, F. Fana, Fegan, S. J., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kocevski, D., Kovac’evic’, M., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Liodakis, I., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Martí-Devesa, G., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mereu, I., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Palatiello, M., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Pei, Z., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Poon, H., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rani, B., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Serini, D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Tajima, H., Takagi, K., Tak, D., Torres, D. F., Valverde, J., Wood, K., Yamazaki, R., Yassine, M., Zhu, S., Uhm, Z. Lucas, and Zhang, Bing. Bright Gamma-Ray Flares Observed in GRB 131108A. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab564f.
Ajello, M., Arimoto, M., Asano, K., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Berretta, A., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Chen, S., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Costantin, D., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Torre Luque, P. de la, Palma, F. de, Lalla, N. Di, Venere, L. Di, Dirirsa, F. Fana, Fegan, S. J., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kocevski, D., Kovac’evic’, M., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Liodakis, I., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Martí-Devesa, G., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mereu, I., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Palatiello, M., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Pei, Z., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Poon, H., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rani, B., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Serini, D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Tajima, H., Takagi, K., Tak, D., Torres, D. F., Valverde, J., Wood, K., Yamazaki, R., Yassine, M., Zhu, S., Uhm, Z. Lucas, & Zhang, Bing. Bright Gamma-Ray Flares Observed in GRB 131108A. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab564f.
Ajello, M., Arimoto, M., Asano, K., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Berretta, A., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Chen, S., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Costantin, D., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Torre Luque, P. de la, Palma, F. de, Lalla, N. Di, Venere, L. Di, Dirirsa, F. Fana, Fegan, S. J., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kocevski, D., Kovac’evic’, M., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Liodakis, I., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Martí-Devesa, G., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mereu, I., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Palatiello, M., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Pei, Z., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Poon, H., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rani, B., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Serini, D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Tajima, H., Takagi, K., Tak, D., Torres, D. F., Valverde, J., Wood, K., Yamazaki, R., Yassine, M., Zhu, S., Uhm, Z. Lucas, and Zhang, Bing. Wed . "Bright Gamma-Ray Flares Observed in GRB 131108A". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab564f.
@article{osti_1595251,
title = {Bright Gamma-Ray Flares Observed in GRB 131108A},
author = {Ajello, M. and Arimoto, M. and Asano, K. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bellazzini, R. and Berretta, A. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bonino, R. and Bottacini, E. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Cameron, R. A. and Caputo, R. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Chen, S. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Costantin, D. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Torre Luque, P. de la and Palma, F. de and Lalla, N. Di and Venere, L. Di and Dirirsa, F. Fana and Fegan, S. J. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Green, D. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Guiriec, S. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Jóhannesson, G. and Kocevski, D. and Kovac’evic’, M. and Kuss, M. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Li, J. and Liodakis, I. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Maldera, S. and Manfreda, A. and Martí-Devesa, G. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mereu, I. and Michelson, P. F. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Moretti, E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Negro, M. and Nuss, E. and Ohno, M. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Palatiello, M. and Paliya, V. S. and Paneque, D. and Pei, Z. and Persic, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Petrosian, V. and Piron, F. and Poon, H. and Porter, T. A. and Principe, G. and Racusin, J. L. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Rani, B. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Serini, D. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Tajima, H. and Takagi, K. and Tak, D. and Torres, D. F. and Valverde, J. and Wood, K. and Yamazaki, R. and Yassine, M. and Zhu, S. and Uhm, Z. Lucas and Zhang, Bing},
abstractNote = {GRB 131108A is a bright long gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by the Large Area Telescope and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Dedicated temporal and spectral analyses reveal three γ-ray flares dominating above 100 MeV, which are not directly related to the prompt emission in the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor band (10 keV–10 MeV). The high-energy light curve of GRB 131108A (100 MeV–10 GeV) shows an unusual evolution: a steep decay, followed by three flares with an underlying emission, and then a long-lasting decay phase. The detailed analysis of the γ-ray flares finds that the three flares are 6–20 times brighter than the underlying emission and are similar to each other. The fluence of each flare, (1.6 ~ 2.0) × 10-6 erg cm-2, is comparable to that of emission during the steep decay phase, 1.7 × 10-6 erg cm-2. The total fluence from three γ-ray flares is 5.3 × 10-6 erg cm-2. The three γ-ray flares show properties similar to the usual X-ray flares that are sharp flux increases, occurring in ~50% of afterglows, in some cases well after the prompt emission. Finally, the temporal and spectral indices during the early steep decay phase and the decaying phase of each flare show the consistency with a relation of the curvature effect ($\hat{\alpha }$ = 2 + $\hat{\beta }$), which is the first observational evidence of the high-latitude emission in the GeV energy band.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/ab564f},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 886,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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