DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Understanding thermal annealing of artificial spin ice

Abstract

Here, we have performed a detailed study on thermal annealing of the moment configuration in artificial spin ice. Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) artificial spin ice samples were examined in the prototypical square ice geometry, studying annealing as a function of island thickness, island shape, and annealing temperature and duration. We also measured the Curie temperature as a function of film thickness, finding that thickness has a strong effect on the Curie temperature in regimes of relevance to many studies of the dynamics of artificial spin ice systems. Increasing the interaction energy between island moments and reducing the energy barrier to flipping the island moments allow the system to more closely approach the collective low energy state of the moments upon annealing, suggesting new channels for understanding the thermalization processes in these important model systems.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [5]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
  3. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)
  4. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
  5. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
  6. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1593732
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1575826; OSTI ID: 1635515; OSTI ID: 1779106
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-29694
Journal ID: ISSN 2166-532X; TRN: US2100768
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0010778; DMR-1807124; 892333218NCA000001; 89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
APL Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2166-532X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Material Science

Citation Formats

Zhang, Xiaoyu, Lao, Yuyang, Sklenar, Joseph, Bingham, Nicholas S., Batley, Joseph T., Watts, Justin D., Nisoli, Cristiano, Leighton, Chris, and Schiffer, Peter. Understanding thermal annealing of artificial spin ice. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5126713.
Zhang, Xiaoyu, Lao, Yuyang, Sklenar, Joseph, Bingham, Nicholas S., Batley, Joseph T., Watts, Justin D., Nisoli, Cristiano, Leighton, Chris, & Schiffer, Peter. Understanding thermal annealing of artificial spin ice. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5126713
Zhang, Xiaoyu, Lao, Yuyang, Sklenar, Joseph, Bingham, Nicholas S., Batley, Joseph T., Watts, Justin D., Nisoli, Cristiano, Leighton, Chris, and Schiffer, Peter. Tue . "Understanding thermal annealing of artificial spin ice". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5126713. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1593732.
@article{osti_1593732,
title = {Understanding thermal annealing of artificial spin ice},
author = {Zhang, Xiaoyu and Lao, Yuyang and Sklenar, Joseph and Bingham, Nicholas S. and Batley, Joseph T. and Watts, Justin D. and Nisoli, Cristiano and Leighton, Chris and Schiffer, Peter},
abstractNote = {Here, we have performed a detailed study on thermal annealing of the moment configuration in artificial spin ice. Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) artificial spin ice samples were examined in the prototypical square ice geometry, studying annealing as a function of island thickness, island shape, and annealing temperature and duration. We also measured the Curie temperature as a function of film thickness, finding that thickness has a strong effect on the Curie temperature in regimes of relevance to many studies of the dynamics of artificial spin ice systems. Increasing the interaction energy between island moments and reducing the energy barrier to flipping the island moments allow the system to more closely approach the collective low energy state of the moments upon annealing, suggesting new channels for understanding the thermalization processes in these important model systems.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5126713},
journal = {APL Materials},
number = 11,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Field-induced phase coexistence in an artificial spin ice
journal, December 2018


Artificial ‘spin ice’ in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands
journal, January 2006

  • Wang, R. F.; Nisoli, C.; Freitas, R. S.
  • Nature, Vol. 439, Issue 7074
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04447

Thermodynamic phase transitions in a frustrated magnetic metamaterial
journal, September 2015

  • Anghinolfi, L.; Luetkens, H.; Perron, J.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9278

Exploring thermally induced states in square artificial spin-ice arrays
journal, May 2013


Magnetism in very thin films of permalloy measured by spin polarized cascade electrons
journal, November 1989

  • Mauri, D.; Scholl, D.; Siegmann, H. C.
  • Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces, Vol. 49, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00617010

Emergent dynamic chirality in a thermally driven artificial spin ratchet
journal, October 2017

  • Gliga, Sebastian; Hrkac, Gino; Donnelly, Claire
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat5007

Spin Ice, Fractionalization, and Topological Order
journal, March 2012


Classical topological order in the kinetics of artificial spin ice
journal, April 2018


FePd 3 as a material for studying thermally active artificial spin ice systems
journal, June 2015


Scaling Theory for Finite-Size Effects in the Critical Region
journal, June 1972


Crystallites of magnetic charges in artificial spin ice
journal, August 2013

  • Zhang, Sheng; Gilbert, Ian; Nisoli, Cristiano
  • Nature, Vol. 500, Issue 7464
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12399

The design and verification of MuMax3
journal, October 2014

  • Vansteenkiste, Arne; Leliaert, Jonathan; Dvornik, Mykola
  • AIP Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4899186

Thermal ground-state ordering and elementary excitations in artificial magnetic square ice
journal, November 2010

  • Morgan, Jason P.; Stein, Aaron; Langridge, Sean
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1853

Direct Observation of Thermal Relaxation in Artificial Spin Ice
journal, August 2013


Effect of FePd alloy composition on the dynamics of artificial spin ice
journal, March 2018


Critical Temperatures of Ising Lattice Films
journal, January 1970


Emergent ice rule and magnetic charge screening from vertex frustration in artificial spin ice
journal, August 2014

  • Gilbert, Ian; Chern, Gia-Wei; Zhang, Sheng
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3037

Energy Minimization and ac Demagnetization in a Nanomagnet Array
journal, July 2008


Artificial Square Ice and Related Dipolar Nanoarrays
journal, June 2006


Frustration by design
journal, July 2016

  • Gilbert, Ian; Nisoli, Cristiano; Schiffer, Peter
  • Physics Today, Vol. 69, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/pt.3.3237

Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in building blocks of artificial kagome spin ice
journal, June 2014


Unhappy vertices in artificial spin ice: new degeneracies from vertex frustration
journal, April 2013


Artificial ‘spin ice’ in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands
journal, March 2007

  • Wang, R. F.; Nisoli, C.; Freitas, R. S.
  • Nature, Vol. 446, Issue 7131
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05607

Thermodynamic phase transitions in a frustrated magnetic metamaterial
text, January 2015


Energy minimization and AC demagnetization in a nanomagnet array
text, January 2008


Spin Ice, Fractionalization and Topological Order
text, January 2011


Artificial square ice and related dipolar nanoarrays
text, January 2006