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Title: Supramolecular polymerization provides non-equilibrium product distributions of imine-linked macrocycles

Abstract

Here, supramolecular polymerization of imine-linked macrocycles has been coupled to dynamic imine bond exchange within a series of macrocycles and oligomers. In this way, macrocycle synthesis is driven by supramolecular assembly, either into small aggregates supported by π–π interactions, or high-aspect ratio nanotubes stabilized primarily by electrostatic and solvophobic interactions. For the latter, supramolecular polymerization into nanotubes restricts imine exchange, thereby conferring chemical stability to the assemblies and their constituent macrocycles. Competition in the formation and component exchange among macrocycles favored pyridine-2,6-diimine-linked species due to their rapid synthesis, thermodynamic stability, and assembly into high-aspect ratio nanotubes under the reaction conditions. In addition, the pyridine-containing nanotubes inhibit the formation of similar macrocycles containing benzene-1,3-diimine-linkages, presumably by disrupting their assembly and templation. Finally, we exploit rapid imine exchange within weak, low-aspect ratio macrocycle aggregates to carry out monomer exchange reactions to macrocycles bearing pyridine moieties. Once a pyridine-containing dialdehyde has exchanged into a macrocycle, the macrocycle becomes capable of nanotube formation, which dramatically slows further imine exchange. This kinetic trap provides chemically diverse macrocycles that are not attainable by direct synthetic methods. Together these findings provide new insights into coupling supramolecular polymerization and dynamic covalent bond-forming processes and leverages this insight tomore » target asymmetric nanotubes. We envision these findings spurring further research efforts in the synthesis of nanostructures with designed and emergent properties.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, 60208 USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); US Army Research Office (ARO); National Science Foundation (NSF); International Institute for Nanotechnology; State of Illinois; Keck Foundation; National Cancer Institute (NCI)
OSTI Identifier:
1592183
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1616605
Grant/Contract Number:  
DGE-1842165; DGE-1324585; NCI CA060553
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Chemical Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Chemical Science Journal Volume: 11 Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-6520
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Strauss, Michael J., Evans, Austin M., Castano, Ioannina, Li, Rebecca L., and Dichtel, William R. Supramolecular polymerization provides non-equilibrium product distributions of imine-linked macrocycles. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1039/C9SC05422G.
Strauss, Michael J., Evans, Austin M., Castano, Ioannina, Li, Rebecca L., & Dichtel, William R. Supramolecular polymerization provides non-equilibrium product distributions of imine-linked macrocycles. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9SC05422G
Strauss, Michael J., Evans, Austin M., Castano, Ioannina, Li, Rebecca L., and Dichtel, William R. Thu . "Supramolecular polymerization provides non-equilibrium product distributions of imine-linked macrocycles". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9SC05422G.
@article{osti_1592183,
title = {Supramolecular polymerization provides non-equilibrium product distributions of imine-linked macrocycles},
author = {Strauss, Michael J. and Evans, Austin M. and Castano, Ioannina and Li, Rebecca L. and Dichtel, William R.},
abstractNote = {Here, supramolecular polymerization of imine-linked macrocycles has been coupled to dynamic imine bond exchange within a series of macrocycles and oligomers. In this way, macrocycle synthesis is driven by supramolecular assembly, either into small aggregates supported by π–π interactions, or high-aspect ratio nanotubes stabilized primarily by electrostatic and solvophobic interactions. For the latter, supramolecular polymerization into nanotubes restricts imine exchange, thereby conferring chemical stability to the assemblies and their constituent macrocycles. Competition in the formation and component exchange among macrocycles favored pyridine-2,6-diimine-linked species due to their rapid synthesis, thermodynamic stability, and assembly into high-aspect ratio nanotubes under the reaction conditions. In addition, the pyridine-containing nanotubes inhibit the formation of similar macrocycles containing benzene-1,3-diimine-linkages, presumably by disrupting their assembly and templation. Finally, we exploit rapid imine exchange within weak, low-aspect ratio macrocycle aggregates to carry out monomer exchange reactions to macrocycles bearing pyridine moieties. Once a pyridine-containing dialdehyde has exchanged into a macrocycle, the macrocycle becomes capable of nanotube formation, which dramatically slows further imine exchange. This kinetic trap provides chemically diverse macrocycles that are not attainable by direct synthetic methods. Together these findings provide new insights into coupling supramolecular polymerization and dynamic covalent bond-forming processes and leverages this insight to target asymmetric nanotubes. We envision these findings spurring further research efforts in the synthesis of nanostructures with designed and emergent properties.},
doi = {10.1039/C9SC05422G},
journal = {Chemical Science},
number = 7,
volume = 11,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1039/C9SC05422G

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