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Title: Active Mixing of Reactive Materials for 3D Printing

Abstract

The mixing of materials during additive manufacturing is a major benefit which allows one to compositionally and spatially tailor material properties, for example to locally control the reactivity in fuel–oxidizer systems known as thermites. This work characterizes an active mixing printhead used in conjunction with a 3D printing process known as Direct Ink Writing. Besides compositional control, a major benefit of this approach is that it offers a safe method for working with these materials, which can otherwise be hazardous once mixed. Custom fuel and oxidizer inks are fed at fixed volumetric rates into an active mixing printhead, and both the rotational speed of the mixing impeller as well as the fuel–oxidizer ratio are varied. Upon ignition, the propagation speed increases with the rotational speed of the mixer and plateaus above a critical value of ≈750 rpm. The critical mixing speed is corroborated by computational fluid simulations and an analytical expression that considers the inks’ complex fluid behavior. Additionally, varying the composition results in a wide range of propagation speeds with peak reactivity corresponding to a fuel–rich formulation ( Φ = 1.5). As a result, a test article incorporating a fast– and slow–burning region demonstrates how spatial composition can manipulatemore » the reactivity.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1583047
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1512824
Report Number(s):
[LLNL-JRNL-765043]
[Journal ID: ISSN 1438-1656; 954418]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC52-07NA27344; 16‐ERD‐040 LLNL‐JRNL‐765043]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Engineering Materials
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 21; Journal Issue: 8]; Journal ID: ISSN 1438-1656
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 3D printing; active mixing; additive manufacturing; reactive materials; thermites

Citation Formats

Golobic, Alexandra M., Durban, Matthew D., Fisher, Scott E., Grapes, Michael D., Ortega, Jason M., Spadaccini, Christopher M., Duoss, Eric B., Gash, Alexander E., and Sullivan, Kyle T. Active Mixing of Reactive Materials for 3D Printing. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1002/adem.201900147.
Golobic, Alexandra M., Durban, Matthew D., Fisher, Scott E., Grapes, Michael D., Ortega, Jason M., Spadaccini, Christopher M., Duoss, Eric B., Gash, Alexander E., & Sullivan, Kyle T. Active Mixing of Reactive Materials for 3D Printing. United States. doi:10.1002/adem.201900147.
Golobic, Alexandra M., Durban, Matthew D., Fisher, Scott E., Grapes, Michael D., Ortega, Jason M., Spadaccini, Christopher M., Duoss, Eric B., Gash, Alexander E., and Sullivan, Kyle T. Wed . "Active Mixing of Reactive Materials for 3D Printing". United States. doi:10.1002/adem.201900147.
@article{osti_1583047,
title = {Active Mixing of Reactive Materials for 3D Printing},
author = {Golobic, Alexandra M. and Durban, Matthew D. and Fisher, Scott E. and Grapes, Michael D. and Ortega, Jason M. and Spadaccini, Christopher M. and Duoss, Eric B. and Gash, Alexander E. and Sullivan, Kyle T.},
abstractNote = {The mixing of materials during additive manufacturing is a major benefit which allows one to compositionally and spatially tailor material properties, for example to locally control the reactivity in fuel–oxidizer systems known as thermites. This work characterizes an active mixing printhead used in conjunction with a 3D printing process known as Direct Ink Writing. Besides compositional control, a major benefit of this approach is that it offers a safe method for working with these materials, which can otherwise be hazardous once mixed. Custom fuel and oxidizer inks are fed at fixed volumetric rates into an active mixing printhead, and both the rotational speed of the mixing impeller as well as the fuel–oxidizer ratio are varied. Upon ignition, the propagation speed increases with the rotational speed of the mixer and plateaus above a critical value of ≈750 rpm. The critical mixing speed is corroborated by computational fluid simulations and an analytical expression that considers the inks’ complex fluid behavior. Additionally, varying the composition results in a wide range of propagation speeds with peak reactivity corresponding to a fuel–rich formulation (Φ = 1.5). As a result, a test article incorporating a fast– and slow–burning region demonstrates how spatial composition can manipulate the reactivity.},
doi = {10.1002/adem.201900147},
journal = {Advanced Engineering Materials},
number = [8],
volume = [21],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

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