skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Ultralow Surface Resistance via Vacuum Heat Treatment of Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities

Abstract

We report on an effort to improve the performance of superconducting radiofrequency cavities by using heat treatment in a temperature range sufficient to dissociate the natural surface oxide. We find that the residual resistance is decreased significantly, and we find an unexpected reduction in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. Together these result in extremely high-quality factor values at relatively large accelerating fields E acc ~20 MV/m: Q 0 =3–4× 10 11 at <1.5 K and Q 0 ~5× 10 10 at 2.0 K. In one cavity, measurements of surface resistance versus temperature showed an extremely small residual resistance of just 0.63±0.06 nΩ at 16 MV/m. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements confirm that the oxide is dissociated significantly, but they also show the presence of nitrogen after heat treatment. We also present studies of surface oxidation via exposure to air and to water, as well as the effects of very light surface removal via HF rinse. The study is performed on 1.3 GHz cavities, but the effect may be extendable to other frequencies as well. The possibilities for applications and the planned future development are discussed.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1582744
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1560849
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1907.00147; FERMILAB-PUB-19-347-TD
Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019; PRAHB2; 014024
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC05-06OR23177
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Applied
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review Applied Journal Volume: 13 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

Posen, S., Romanenko, A., Grassellino, A., Melnychuk, O. S., and Sergatskov, D. A. Ultralow Surface Resistance via Vacuum Heat Treatment of Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.014024.
Posen, S., Romanenko, A., Grassellino, A., Melnychuk, O. S., & Sergatskov, D. A. Ultralow Surface Resistance via Vacuum Heat Treatment of Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.014024.
Posen, S., Romanenko, A., Grassellino, A., Melnychuk, O. S., and Sergatskov, D. A. Wed . "Ultralow Surface Resistance via Vacuum Heat Treatment of Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.014024.
@article{osti_1582744,
title = {Ultralow Surface Resistance via Vacuum Heat Treatment of Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities},
author = {Posen, S. and Romanenko, A. and Grassellino, A. and Melnychuk, O. S. and Sergatskov, D. A.},
abstractNote = {We report on an effort to improve the performance of superconducting radiofrequency cavities by using heat treatment in a temperature range sufficient to dissociate the natural surface oxide. We find that the residual resistance is decreased significantly, and we find an unexpected reduction in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. Together these result in extremely high-quality factor values at relatively large accelerating fields Eacc~20 MV/m: Q0=3–4×1011 at <1.5 K and Q0~5×1010 at 2.0 K. In one cavity, measurements of surface resistance versus temperature showed an extremely small residual resistance of just 0.63±0.06 nΩ at 16 MV/m. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements confirm that the oxide is dissociated significantly, but they also show the presence of nitrogen after heat treatment. We also present studies of surface oxidation via exposure to air and to water, as well as the effects of very light surface removal via HF rinse. The study is performed on 1.3 GHz cavities, but the effect may be extendable to other frequencies as well. The possibilities for applications and the planned future development are discussed.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.014024},
journal = {Physical Review Applied},
number = 1,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.014024

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Error analysis for intrinsic quality factor measurement in superconducting radio frequency resonators
journal, December 2014

  • Melnychuk, O.; Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4903868

Comparison between measured and calculatedRF losses in the superconducting state
journal, October 1970


Effect of mild baking on superconducting niobium cavities investigated by sequential nanoremoval
journal, January 2013

  • Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 16, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.16.012001

Nitrogen and argon doping of niobium for superconducting radio frequency cavities: a pathway to highly efficient accelerating structures
journal, August 2013


Theory of the Anomalous Skin Effect in Normal and Superconducting Metals
journal, July 1958


Unprecedented quality factors at accelerating gradients up to 45 MVm −1 in niobium superconducting resonators via low temperature nitrogen infusion
journal, August 2017

  • Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.; Trenikhina, Y.
  • Superconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 30, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6668/aa7afe

Oxide overlayers and the superconducting rf properties of yttrium-processed high purity Nb
journal, December 1990

  • Palmer, F. L.; Kirby, R. E.; King, F. K.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 297, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(90)91314-2

X-ray investigation of subsurface interstitial oxygen at Nb/oxide interfaces
journal, March 2008

  • Delheusy, M.; Stierle, A.; Kasper, N.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2889474

Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG
journal, December 2014

  • Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Crawford, A. C.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4903808

Understanding Quality Factor Degradation in Superconducting Niobium Cavities at Low Microwave Field Amplitudes
journal, December 2017


Systematic uncertainties in RF-based measurement of superconducting cavity quality factors
journal, September 2016

  • Holzbauer, J. P.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sergatskov, D. A.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 830
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2016.05.025

Effect of interstitial impurities on the field dependent microwave surface resistance of niobium
journal, August 2016

  • Martinello, M.; Grassellino, A.; Checchin, M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 109, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4960801

Theory of Superconductivity
journal, December 1957


Dependence of the residual surface resistance of superconducting radio frequency cavities on the cooling dynamics around T c
journal, May 2014

  • Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Melnychuk, O.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4875655

Efficient expulsion of magnetic flux in superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q 0 applications
journal, June 2016

  • Posen, S.; Checchin, M.; Crawford, A. C.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4953087

Influence of oxide layers on the microwave surface resistance of niobium
journal, March 1987


Effect of oxide layer on microwave surface resistance of superconducting niobium
journal, March 1985


Residual surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies
journal, April 1974

  • Kartheuser, E. P.; Rodriguez, Sergio
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 24, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1655207

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Three-Dimensional Superconducting Resonators at T < 20 mK with Photon Lifetimes up to τ = 2 s
    journal, March 2020