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Title: Characterization of Aged Li-Ion Battery Components for Direct Recycling Process Design

Abstract

Novel nondestructive recycling methods for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are under investigation but lack the process engineering specifications required for full-scale operation. Specifically, the ability of end-of-life LIB components to withstand the stresses inherent in industrial manufacturing techniques has not been established. In this paper, we mechanically characterize the electrodes of both fresh and 'cycle-aged' (C-A) cells, and couple this with electrochemical analysis to establish reprocessing requirements in the context of roll-to-roll (R2R) direct recycling. Cycle-aging is found to significantly reduce the tensile strength of electrodes and C-A cathodes reach elastic deformation at a lower strain than do fresh cathodes. This implies that both roll tension and calendering force may need to be reduced for C-A components relative to fresh components to avoid irreversible damage. Electrochemical analysis suggests that phase change and buildup of electrolyte residues at both the primary particle and in the inter-particle pore space may contribute to cathode degradation. The combination of these mechanical and electrochemical findings is crucial to informing the process design of industrial-scale nondestructive LIB recycling methods.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) (SC-27)
OSTI Identifier:
1582487
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1580028
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-75651
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 166; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; batteries; lithium batteries; aging effects; degradation; mechanical testing

Citation Formats

Fink, Kae, Santhanagopalan, Shriram, Hartig, Julia, and Cao, Lei. Characterization of Aged Li-Ion Battery Components for Direct Recycling Process Design. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1149/2.0781915jes.
Fink, Kae, Santhanagopalan, Shriram, Hartig, Julia, & Cao, Lei. Characterization of Aged Li-Ion Battery Components for Direct Recycling Process Design. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0781915jes.
Fink, Kae, Santhanagopalan, Shriram, Hartig, Julia, and Cao, Lei. Thu . "Characterization of Aged Li-Ion Battery Components for Direct Recycling Process Design". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0781915jes.
@article{osti_1582487,
title = {Characterization of Aged Li-Ion Battery Components for Direct Recycling Process Design},
author = {Fink, Kae and Santhanagopalan, Shriram and Hartig, Julia and Cao, Lei},
abstractNote = {Novel nondestructive recycling methods for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are under investigation but lack the process engineering specifications required for full-scale operation. Specifically, the ability of end-of-life LIB components to withstand the stresses inherent in industrial manufacturing techniques has not been established. In this paper, we mechanically characterize the electrodes of both fresh and 'cycle-aged' (C-A) cells, and couple this with electrochemical analysis to establish reprocessing requirements in the context of roll-to-roll (R2R) direct recycling. Cycle-aging is found to significantly reduce the tensile strength of electrodes and C-A cathodes reach elastic deformation at a lower strain than do fresh cathodes. This implies that both roll tension and calendering force may need to be reduced for C-A components relative to fresh components to avoid irreversible damage. Electrochemical analysis suggests that phase change and buildup of electrolyte residues at both the primary particle and in the inter-particle pore space may contribute to cathode degradation. The combination of these mechanical and electrochemical findings is crucial to informing the process design of industrial-scale nondestructive LIB recycling methods.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0781915jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 15,
volume = 166,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1149/2.0781915jes

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