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Title: Magnetization dynamics of weakly interacting sub-100 nm square artificial spin ices

Abstract

Artificial Spin Ice (ASI), consisting of a two dimensional array of nanoscale magnetic elements, provides a fascinating opportunity to observe the physics of out-of-equilibrium systems. Initial studies concentrated on the static, frozen state, whilst more recent studies have accessed the out-of-equilibrium dynamic, fluctuating state. This opens up exciting possibilities such as the observation of systems exploring their energy landscape through monopole quasiparticle creation, potentially leading to ASI magnetricity, and to directly observe unconventional phase transitions. In this work we have measured and analysed the magnetic relaxation of thermally active ASI systems by means of SQUID magnetometry. We have investigated the effect of the interaction strength on the magnetization dynamics at different temperatures in the range where the nanomagnets are thermally active. We have observed that they follow an Arrhenius-type Néel-Brown behaviour. An unexpected negative correlation of the average blocking temperature with the interaction strength is also observed, which is supported by Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetization relaxation measurements show faster relaxation for more strongly coupled nanoelements with similar dimensions. The analysis of the stretching exponents obtained from the measurements suggest 1-D chain-like magnetization dynamics. This indicates that the nature of the interactions between nanoelements lowers the dimensionality of the ASImore » from 2-D to 1-D. Finally, we present a way to quantify the effective interaction energy of a square ASI system, and compare it to the interaction energy computed with micromagnetic simulations.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Chilton (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL), ISIS Neutron and Muon Facility; Basque Center for Materials, Applications & Nanostructures, Leioa (Spain). BCMaterials; Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)
  2. Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
  3. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Chilton (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL), ISIS Neutron and Muon Facility
  4. Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)
  5. Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)
  6. Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
OSTI Identifier:
1582365
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231; EP/L003090/1; EP/L00285X/1; EP/L002922/1]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1]; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Magnetic properties and materials; Phase transitions and critical phenomena

Citation Formats

Porro, Jose M., Morley, Sophie A., Venero, Diego Alba, Macêdo, Rair, Rosamond, Mark C., Linfield, Edmund H., Stamps, Robert L., Marrows, Christopher H., and Langridge, Sean. Magnetization dynamics of weakly interacting sub-100 nm square artificial spin ices. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56219-y.
Porro, Jose M., Morley, Sophie A., Venero, Diego Alba, Macêdo, Rair, Rosamond, Mark C., Linfield, Edmund H., Stamps, Robert L., Marrows, Christopher H., & Langridge, Sean. Magnetization dynamics of weakly interacting sub-100 nm square artificial spin ices. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56219-y.
Porro, Jose M., Morley, Sophie A., Venero, Diego Alba, Macêdo, Rair, Rosamond, Mark C., Linfield, Edmund H., Stamps, Robert L., Marrows, Christopher H., and Langridge, Sean. Fri . "Magnetization dynamics of weakly interacting sub-100 nm square artificial spin ices". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56219-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1582365.
@article{osti_1582365,
title = {Magnetization dynamics of weakly interacting sub-100 nm square artificial spin ices},
author = {Porro, Jose M. and Morley, Sophie A. and Venero, Diego Alba and Macêdo, Rair and Rosamond, Mark C. and Linfield, Edmund H. and Stamps, Robert L. and Marrows, Christopher H. and Langridge, Sean},
abstractNote = {Artificial Spin Ice (ASI), consisting of a two dimensional array of nanoscale magnetic elements, provides a fascinating opportunity to observe the physics of out-of-equilibrium systems. Initial studies concentrated on the static, frozen state, whilst more recent studies have accessed the out-of-equilibrium dynamic, fluctuating state. This opens up exciting possibilities such as the observation of systems exploring their energy landscape through monopole quasiparticle creation, potentially leading to ASI magnetricity, and to directly observe unconventional phase transitions. In this work we have measured and analysed the magnetic relaxation of thermally active ASI systems by means of SQUID magnetometry. We have investigated the effect of the interaction strength on the magnetization dynamics at different temperatures in the range where the nanomagnets are thermally active. We have observed that they follow an Arrhenius-type Néel-Brown behaviour. An unexpected negative correlation of the average blocking temperature with the interaction strength is also observed, which is supported by Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetization relaxation measurements show faster relaxation for more strongly coupled nanoelements with similar dimensions. The analysis of the stretching exponents obtained from the measurements suggest 1-D chain-like magnetization dynamics. This indicates that the nature of the interactions between nanoelements lowers the dimensionality of the ASI from 2-D to 1-D. Finally, we present a way to quantify the effective interaction energy of a square ASI system, and compare it to the interaction energy computed with micromagnetic simulations.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-56219-y},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = [1],
volume = [9],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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