skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The Community Land Model Version 5: Description of New Features, Benchmarking, and Impact of Forcing Uncertainty

Abstract

The Community Land Model (CLM) is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and is used in several global and regional modeling systems. In this paper, we introduce model developments included in CLM version 5 (CLM5), which is the default land component for CESM2. We assess an ensemble of simulations, including prescribed and prognostic vegetation state, multiple forcing data sets, and CLM4, CLM4.5, and CLM5, against a range of metrics including from the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMBv2) package. CLM5 includes new and updated processes and parameterizations: (1) dynamic land units, (2) updated parameterizations and structure for hydrology and snow (spatially explicit soil depth, dry surface layer, revised groundwater scheme, revised canopy interception and canopy snow processes, updated fresh snow density, simple firn model, and Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport), (3) plant hydraulics and hydraulic redistribution, (4) revised nitrogen cycling (flexible leaf stoichiometry, leaf N optimization for photosynthesis, and carbon costs for plant nitrogen uptake), (5) global crop model with six crop types and time-evolving irrigated areas and fertilization rates, (6) updated urban building energy, (7) carbon isotopes, and (8) updated stomatal physiology. New optional features include demographically structured dynamic vegetation model (Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystemmore » Simulator), ozone damage to plants, and fire trace gas emissions coupling to the atmosphere. Conclusive establishment of improvement or degradation of individual variables or metrics is challenged by forcing uncertainty, parametric uncertainty, and model structural complexity, but the multivariate metrics presented here suggest a general broad improvement from CLM4 to CLM5.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [9] more »;  [10]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [2];  [4]; ORCiD logo [13];  [14]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [16]; ORCiD logo [17]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [18]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [18];  [2]; ORCiD logo [19]; ORCiD logo [20]; ORCiD logo [21]; ORCiD logo [1];  [22];  [19]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [23]; ORCiD logo [24]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [25]; ORCiD logo [26];  [27]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [28]; ORCiD logo [29]; ORCiD logo [13] « less
  1. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)
  5. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  6. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China)
  7. Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)
  8. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab. (JPL); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  9. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  10. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  11. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  12. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES)
  13. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  14. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  15. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
  16. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  17. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  18. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  19. Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
  20. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  21. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  22. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chengdu (China)
  23. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  24. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
  25. Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique (CERFACS), Toulouse (France)
  26. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO (United States)
  27. Energy and Environmental Economics, San Francisco, CA (United States)
  28. Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)
  29. Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; USDA; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1582358
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231; 1852977; 2015‐67003‐23485; NNX17AK19G; SC0008317; SC0016188; DEB‐1153401]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 12]; Journal ID: ISSN 1942-2466
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; global land model; Earth System Modeling; carbon and nitrogen cycling; hydrology; benchmarking

Citation Formats

Lawrence, David M., Fisher, Rosie A., Koven, Charles D., Oleson, Keith W., Swenson, Sean C., Bonan, Gordon, Collier, Nathan, Ghimire, Bardan, Kampenhout, Leo, Kennedy, Daniel, Kluzek, Erik, Lawrence, Peter J., Li, Fang, Li, Hongyi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Riley, William J., Sacks, William J., Shi, Mingjie, Vertenstein, Mariana, Wieder, William R., Xu, Chonggang, Ali, Ashehad A., Badger, Andrew M., Bisht, Gautam, van den Broeke, Michiel, Brunke, Michael A., Burns, Sean P., Buzan, Jonathan, Clark, Martyn, Craig, Anthony, Dahlin, Kyla, Drewniak, Beth, Fisher, Joshua B., Flanner, Mark, Fox, Andrew M., Gentine, Pierre, Hoffman, Forrest, Keppel‐Aleks, Gretchen, Knox, Ryan, Kumar, Sanjiv, Lenaerts, Jan, Leung, L. Ruby, Lipscomb, William H., Lu, Yaqiong, Pandey, Ashutosh, Pelletier, Jon D., Perket, Justin, Randerson, James T., Ricciuto, Daniel M., Sanderson, Benjamin M., Slater, Andrew, Subin, Zachary M., Tang, Jinyun, Thomas, R. Quinn, Val Martin, Maria, and Zeng, Xubin. The Community Land Model Version 5: Description of New Features, Benchmarking, and Impact of Forcing Uncertainty. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2018ms001583.
Lawrence, David M., Fisher, Rosie A., Koven, Charles D., Oleson, Keith W., Swenson, Sean C., Bonan, Gordon, Collier, Nathan, Ghimire, Bardan, Kampenhout, Leo, Kennedy, Daniel, Kluzek, Erik, Lawrence, Peter J., Li, Fang, Li, Hongyi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Riley, William J., Sacks, William J., Shi, Mingjie, Vertenstein, Mariana, Wieder, William R., Xu, Chonggang, Ali, Ashehad A., Badger, Andrew M., Bisht, Gautam, van den Broeke, Michiel, Brunke, Michael A., Burns, Sean P., Buzan, Jonathan, Clark, Martyn, Craig, Anthony, Dahlin, Kyla, Drewniak, Beth, Fisher, Joshua B., Flanner, Mark, Fox, Andrew M., Gentine, Pierre, Hoffman, Forrest, Keppel‐Aleks, Gretchen, Knox, Ryan, Kumar, Sanjiv, Lenaerts, Jan, Leung, L. Ruby, Lipscomb, William H., Lu, Yaqiong, Pandey, Ashutosh, Pelletier, Jon D., Perket, Justin, Randerson, James T., Ricciuto, Daniel M., Sanderson, Benjamin M., Slater, Andrew, Subin, Zachary M., Tang, Jinyun, Thomas, R. Quinn, Val Martin, Maria, & Zeng, Xubin. The Community Land Model Version 5: Description of New Features, Benchmarking, and Impact of Forcing Uncertainty. United States. doi:10.1029/2018ms001583.
Lawrence, David M., Fisher, Rosie A., Koven, Charles D., Oleson, Keith W., Swenson, Sean C., Bonan, Gordon, Collier, Nathan, Ghimire, Bardan, Kampenhout, Leo, Kennedy, Daniel, Kluzek, Erik, Lawrence, Peter J., Li, Fang, Li, Hongyi, Lombardozzi, Danica, Riley, William J., Sacks, William J., Shi, Mingjie, Vertenstein, Mariana, Wieder, William R., Xu, Chonggang, Ali, Ashehad A., Badger, Andrew M., Bisht, Gautam, van den Broeke, Michiel, Brunke, Michael A., Burns, Sean P., Buzan, Jonathan, Clark, Martyn, Craig, Anthony, Dahlin, Kyla, Drewniak, Beth, Fisher, Joshua B., Flanner, Mark, Fox, Andrew M., Gentine, Pierre, Hoffman, Forrest, Keppel‐Aleks, Gretchen, Knox, Ryan, Kumar, Sanjiv, Lenaerts, Jan, Leung, L. Ruby, Lipscomb, William H., Lu, Yaqiong, Pandey, Ashutosh, Pelletier, Jon D., Perket, Justin, Randerson, James T., Ricciuto, Daniel M., Sanderson, Benjamin M., Slater, Andrew, Subin, Zachary M., Tang, Jinyun, Thomas, R. Quinn, Val Martin, Maria, and Zeng, Xubin. Thu . "The Community Land Model Version 5: Description of New Features, Benchmarking, and Impact of Forcing Uncertainty". United States. doi:10.1029/2018ms001583. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1582358.
@article{osti_1582358,
title = {The Community Land Model Version 5: Description of New Features, Benchmarking, and Impact of Forcing Uncertainty},
author = {Lawrence, David M. and Fisher, Rosie A. and Koven, Charles D. and Oleson, Keith W. and Swenson, Sean C. and Bonan, Gordon and Collier, Nathan and Ghimire, Bardan and Kampenhout, Leo and Kennedy, Daniel and Kluzek, Erik and Lawrence, Peter J. and Li, Fang and Li, Hongyi and Lombardozzi, Danica and Riley, William J. and Sacks, William J. and Shi, Mingjie and Vertenstein, Mariana and Wieder, William R. and Xu, Chonggang and Ali, Ashehad A. and Badger, Andrew M. and Bisht, Gautam and van den Broeke, Michiel and Brunke, Michael A. and Burns, Sean P. and Buzan, Jonathan and Clark, Martyn and Craig, Anthony and Dahlin, Kyla and Drewniak, Beth and Fisher, Joshua B. and Flanner, Mark and Fox, Andrew M. and Gentine, Pierre and Hoffman, Forrest and Keppel‐Aleks, Gretchen and Knox, Ryan and Kumar, Sanjiv and Lenaerts, Jan and Leung, L. Ruby and Lipscomb, William H. and Lu, Yaqiong and Pandey, Ashutosh and Pelletier, Jon D. and Perket, Justin and Randerson, James T. and Ricciuto, Daniel M. and Sanderson, Benjamin M. and Slater, Andrew and Subin, Zachary M. and Tang, Jinyun and Thomas, R. Quinn and Val Martin, Maria and Zeng, Xubin},
abstractNote = {The Community Land Model (CLM) is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and is used in several global and regional modeling systems. In this paper, we introduce model developments included in CLM version 5 (CLM5), which is the default land component for CESM2. We assess an ensemble of simulations, including prescribed and prognostic vegetation state, multiple forcing data sets, and CLM4, CLM4.5, and CLM5, against a range of metrics including from the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMBv2) package. CLM5 includes new and updated processes and parameterizations: (1) dynamic land units, (2) updated parameterizations and structure for hydrology and snow (spatially explicit soil depth, dry surface layer, revised groundwater scheme, revised canopy interception and canopy snow processes, updated fresh snow density, simple firn model, and Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport), (3) plant hydraulics and hydraulic redistribution, (4) revised nitrogen cycling (flexible leaf stoichiometry, leaf N optimization for photosynthesis, and carbon costs for plant nitrogen uptake), (5) global crop model with six crop types and time-evolving irrigated areas and fertilization rates, (6) updated urban building energy, (7) carbon isotopes, and (8) updated stomatal physiology. New optional features include demographically structured dynamic vegetation model (Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator), ozone damage to plants, and fire trace gas emissions coupling to the atmosphere. Conclusive establishment of improvement or degradation of individual variables or metrics is challenged by forcing uncertainty, parametric uncertainty, and model structural complexity, but the multivariate metrics presented here suggest a general broad improvement from CLM4 to CLM5.},
doi = {10.1029/2018ms001583},
journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
number = [12],
volume = [11],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Estimating Snow Water Storage in North America Using CLM4, DART, and Snow Radiance Data Assimilation
journal, November 2016

  • Kwon, Yonghwan; Yang, Zong-Liang; Zhao, Long
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0028.1

Improving maize growth processes in the community land model: Implementation and evaluation
journal, March 2018


Implications of Nonlocal Transport and Conditionally Averaged Statistics on Monin–Obukhov Similarity Theory and Townsend’s Attached Eddy Hypothesis
journal, October 2018

  • Li, Qi; Gentine, Pierre; Mellado, Juan Pedro
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 75, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0301.1

Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model
journal, January 2016

  • Shi, Mingjie; Fisher, Joshua B.; Brzostek, Edward R.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13131

Using ecosystem experiments to improve vegetation models
journal, May 2015

  • Medlyn, Belinda E.; Zaehle, Sönke; De Kauwe, Martin G.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2621

Integrating O 3 influences on terrestrial processes: photosynthetic and stomatal response data available for regional and global modeling
journal, January 2013


Parametric Controls on Vegetation Responses to Biogeochemical Forcing in the CLM5
journal, September 2019

  • Fisher, Rosie A.; Wieder, William R.; Sanderson, Benjamin M.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019MS001609

Modeling the carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: Mycorrhizal trade-offs and multipath resistance uptake improve predictions of retranslocation: Carbon cost of mycorrhizae
journal, August 2014

  • Brzostek, Edward R.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Phillips, Richard P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 119, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002660

Implementation and Initial Evaluation of the Glimmer Community Ice Sheet Model in the Community Earth System Model
journal, October 2013

  • Lipscomb, William H.; Fyke, Jeremy G.; Vizcaíno, Miren
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 26, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00557.1

Global patterns of nitrogen limitation: confronting two global biogeochemical models with observations
journal, August 2013

  • Thomas, R. Quinn; Zaehle, Sönke; Templer, Pamela H.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 19, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12281

Dependence of the evolution of carbon dynamics in the northern permafrost region on the trajectory of climate change
journal, March 2018

  • McGuire, A. David; Lawrence, David M.; Koven, Charles
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719903115

The Influence of Chronic Ozone Exposure on Global Carbon and Water Cycles
journal, January 2015


Observed timescales of evapotranspiration response to soil moisture
journal, January 2006

  • Teuling, A. J.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Williams, C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028178

Assimilation of MODIS snow cover through the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Community Land Model version 4: SNOW DATA ASSIMILATION
journal, June 2014

  • Zhang, Yong-Fei; Hoar, Tim J.; Yang, Zong-Liang
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021329

Estimation of baseflow recession constants
journal, August 1996

  • Vogel, Richard M.; Kroll, Charles N.
  • Water Resources Management, Vol. 10, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00508898

The WFDEI meteorological forcing data set: WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim reanalysis data
journal, September 2014

  • Weedon, Graham P.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Bellouin, Nicolas
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 50, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014WR015638

A Comparison of the Diel Cycle of Modeled and Measured Latent Heat Flux During the Warm Season in a Colorado Subalpine Forest
journal, March 2018

  • Burns, Sean P.; Swenson, Sean C.; Wieder, William R.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017MS001248

Incorporating organic soil into a global climate model
journal, June 2007


Confronting model predictions of carbon fluxes with measurements of Amazon forests subjected to experimental drought
journal, July 2013

  • Powell, Thomas L.; Galbraith, David R.; Christoffersen, Bradley O.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 200, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.12390

Assessing a dry surface layer-based soil resistance parameterization for the Community Land Model using GRACE and FLUXNET-MTE data
journal, September 2014

  • Swenson, S. C.; Lawrence, D. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JD022314

Improvements to the Community Land Model and their impact on the hydrological cycle: COMMUNITY LAND MODEL HYDROLOGY
journal, March 2008

  • Oleson, K. W.; Niu, G. -Y.; Yang, Z. -L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 113, Issue G1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JG000563

Present‐day irrigation mitigates heat extremes
journal, February 2017

  • Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, David M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025740

Climate, ecosystems, and planetary futures: The challenge to predict life in Earth system models
journal, February 2018


Ancient numerical daemons of conceptual hydrological modeling: 1. Fidelity and efficiency of time stepping schemes
journal, October 2010

  • Clark, Martyn P.; Kavetski, Dmitri
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 46, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009WR008894

Changes in Continental Freshwater Discharge from 1948 to 2004
journal, May 2009

  • Dai, Aiguo; Qian, Taotao; Trenberth, Kevin E.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2592.1

Estimating Snow Water Equivalent Using Snow Depth Data and Climate Classes
journal, December 2010

  • Sturm, Matthew; Taras, Brian; Liston, Glen E.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JHM1202.1

Water-use efficiency and transpiration across European forests during the Anthropocene
journal, May 2015

  • Frank, D. C.; Poulter, B.; Saurer, M.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2614

Carbon-Nitrogen Interactions in Terrestrial Ecosystems in Response to Rising Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
journal, December 2006


Permafrost thaw and resulting soil moisture changes regulate projected high-latitude CO 2 and CH 4 emissions
journal, September 2015


Improvements of the MODIS terrestrial gross and net primary production global data set
journal, March 2005

  • Zhao, Maosheng; Heinsch, Faith Ann; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.
  • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 95, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2004.12.011

Higher climatological temperature sensitivity of soil carbon in cold than warm climates
journal, October 2017

  • Koven, Charles D.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Lawrence, David M.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate3421

Creation of the WATCH Forcing Data and Its Use to Assess Global and Regional Reference Crop Evaporation over Land during the Twentieth Century
journal, October 2011

  • Weedon, G. P.; Gomes, S.; Viterbo, P.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 12, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JHM1369.1

Dynamical Global Downscaling of Global Reanalysis
journal, August 2008


Soil Moisture Stress as a Major Driver of Carbon Cycle Uncertainty
journal, July 2018

  • Trugman, A. T.; Medvigy, D.; Mankin, J. S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078131

Reconciling the optimal and empirical approaches to modelling stomatal conductance: RECONCILING OPTIMAL AND EMPIRICAL STOMATAL MODELS
journal, January 2011


Improving satellite-retrieved surface radiative fluxes in polar regions using a smart sampling approach
journal, January 2016

  • Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.
  • The Cryosphere, Vol. 10, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/tc-10-2379-2016

Adaptive time stepping and error control in a mass conservative numerical solution of the mixed form of Richards equation
journal, June 2001


Multi-sensor land data assimilation: Toward a robust global soil moisture and snow estimation
journal, October 2018


Forest growing stock volume of the northern hemisphere: Spatially explicit estimates for 2010 derived from Envisat ASAR
journal, October 2015

  • Santoro, Maurizio; Beaudoin, André; Beer, Christian
  • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 168
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2015.07.005

The allocation of ecosystem net primary productivity in tropical forests
journal, November 2011

  • Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher; Galbraith, David
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 366, Issue 1582
  • DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0062

Biomass production efficiency controlled by management in temperate and boreal ecosystems
journal, October 2015

  • Campioli, M.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2553

Environmental drivers of drought deciduous phenology in the Community Land Model
journal, January 2015


Vegetation demographics in Earth System Models: A review of progress and priorities
journal, October 2017

  • Fisher, Rosie A.; Koven, Charles D.; Anderegg, William R. L.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 24, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13910

Historical (1850–2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application
journal, January 2010

  • Lamarque, J. -F.; Bond, T. C.; Eyring, V.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Vol. 10, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/acpd-10-4963-2010

A roadmap for improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models
journal, November 2016

  • Rogers, Alistair; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 213, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.14283

Global inputs of biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems
journal, July 2008


Global Carbon Budget 2017
journal, January 2018

  • Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre
  • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/essd-10-405-2018

Evaluating and improving the Community Land Model's sensitivity to land cover
journal, January 2018


Photosynthetic responses to stress in Mediterranean evergreens: Mechanisms and models
journal, July 2014


Beyond Static Benchmarking: Using Experimental Manipulations to Evaluate Land Model Assumptions
journal, October 2019

  • Wieder, William R.; Lawrence, David M.; Fisher, Rosie A.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 33, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018GB006141

Anthropogenic land use estimates for the Holocene – HYDE 3.2
journal, January 2017

  • Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Beusen, Arthur; Doelman, Jonathan
  • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/essd-9-927-2017

An Urban Parameterization for a Global Climate Model. Part I: Formulation and Evaluation for Two Cities
journal, April 2008

  • Oleson, K. W.; Bonan, G. B.; Feddema, J.
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 47, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JAMC1597.1

Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning
journal, December 2001

  • Andreae, M. O.; Merlet, P.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 15, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000GB001382

Sensitivity of tropical carbon to climate change constrained by carbon dioxide variability
journal, February 2013

  • Cox, Peter M.; Pearson, David; Booth, Ben B.
  • Nature, Vol. 494, Issue 7437
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11882

Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N 2 ) fixation in natural ecosystems
journal, June 1999

  • Cleveland, Cory C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Schimel, David S.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999GB900014

A test of an optimal stomatal conductance scheme within the CABLE land surface model
journal, January 2015

  • De Kauwe, M. G.; Kala, J.; Lin, Y. -S.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-8-431-2015

Effects of global irrigation on the near-surface climate
journal, July 2008

  • Sacks, William J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Buenning, Nikolaus
  • Climate Dynamics, Vol. 33, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00382-008-0445-z

A new fractional snow-covered area parameterization for the Community Land Model and its effect on the surface energy balance: CLM SNOW COVER FRACTION
journal, November 2012

  • Swenson, S. C.; Lawrence, D. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, Issue D21
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018178

Improving the treatment of the vertical snow burial fraction over short vegetation in the NCAR CLM3
journal, September 2009


Ecosystem model spin-up: Estimating steady state conditions in a coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle model
journal, November 2005


Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models
journal, January 2011

  • Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011

Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production
journal, April 2017

  • Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.
  • Nature, Vol. 544, Issue 7648
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature22030

Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes, CLM4.5(ED)
journal, January 2015

  • Fisher, R. A.; Muszala, S.; Verteinstein, M.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-8-3593-2015

Modeling canopy-induced turbulence in the Earth system: a unified parameterization of turbulent exchange within plant canopies and the roughness sublayer (CLM-ml v0)
journal, January 2018

  • Bonan, Gordon B.; Patton, Edward G.; Harman, Ian N.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-1467-2018

The Data Assimilation Research Testbed: A Community Facility
journal, September 2009

  • Anderson, Jeffrey; Hoar, Tim; Raeder, Kevin
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 90, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009BAMS2618.1

A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes
journal, November 1996

  • Jackson, R. B.; Canadell, J.; Ehleringer, J. R.
  • Oecologia, Vol. 108, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00333714

Global variations in ecosystem-scale isohydricity
journal, July 2016

  • Konings, Alexandra G.; Gentine, Pierre
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 23, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13389

Using models to guide field experiments: a priori predictions for the CO 2 response of a nutrient- and water-limited native Eucalypt woodland
journal, May 2016

  • Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Zaehle, Sönke
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13268

Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world
journal, March 2015

  • Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2550

Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro)
journal, January 2016

  • Christoffersen, Bradley O.; Gloor, Manuel; Fauset, Sophie
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-4227-2016

A new global 1-km dataset of percentage tree cover derived from remote sensing
journal, February 2000


A global scale mechanistic model of photosynthetic capacity (LUNA V1.0)
journal, January 2016


Sensitivity of a model projection of near-surface permafrost degradation to soil column depth and representation of soil organic matter
journal, January 2008

  • Lawrence, David M.; Slater, Andrew G.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue F2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JF000883

Forest carbon use efficiency: is respiration a constant fraction of gross primary production?
journal, June 2007


An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets
journal, January 2016

  • Avitabile, Valerio; Herold, Martin; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13139

Implementing Plant Hydraulics in the Community Land Model, Version 5
journal, February 2019

  • Kennedy, Daniel; Swenson, Sean; Oleson, Keith W.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001500

CLMcrop yields and water requirements: avoided impacts by choosing RCP 4.5 over 8.5
journal, March 2016


An observation-based formulation of snow cover fraction and its evaluation over large North American river basins
journal, January 2007

  • Niu, Guo-Yue; Yang, Zong-Liang
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue D21
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JD008674

Global carbon budget 2013
journal, January 2014

  • Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.
  • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/essd-6-235-2014

Parameterization and Surface Data Improvements and New Capabilities for the Community Land Model Urban (CLMU)
journal, February 2020

  • Oleson, K. W.; Feddema, J.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 12, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001586

Global Vegetation Root Distribution for Land Modeling
journal, October 2001


Quantifying photosynthetic capacity and its relationship to leaf nitrogen content for global-scale terrestrial biosphere models
journal, April 2009


Development of a simple groundwater model for use in climate models and evaluation with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data
journal, January 2007

  • Niu, Guo-Yue; Yang, Zong-Liang; Dickinson, Robert E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue D7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JD007522

Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5)
journal, May 2016

  • Brunke, Michael A.; Broxton, Patrick; Pelletier, Jon
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 29, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0307.1

Active microwave observations of diurnal and seasonal variations of canopy water content across the humid African tropical forests
journal, March 2017

  • Konings, Alexandra G.; Yu, Yifan; Xu, Liang
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072388

The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) contribution to CMIP6: rationale and experimental design
journal, January 2016

  • Lawrence, David M.; Hurtt, George C.; Arneth, Almut
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-2973-2016

The Community Climate System Model Version 4
journal, October 2011

  • Gent, Peter R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Donner, Leo J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI4083.1

LS3MIP (v1.0) contribution to CMIP6: the Land Surface, Snow and Soil moisture Model Intercomparison Project – aims, setup and expected outcome
journal, January 2016

  • van den Hurk, Bart; Kim, Hyungjun; Krinner, Gerhard
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-2809-2016

Toward a Mechanistic Modeling of Nitrogen Limitation on Vegetation Dynamics
journal, May 2012


Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration
journal, April 2013

  • Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D.; Gibson, John J.
  • Nature, Vol. 496, Issue 7445
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11983

Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback
journal, April 2015

  • Schuur, E. A. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Schädel, C.
  • Nature, Vol. 520, Issue 7546
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature14338

Global Soil Moisture Estimation by Assimilating AMSR-E Brightness Temperatures in a Coupled CLM4–RTM–DART System
journal, September 2016

  • Zhao, Long; Yang, Zong-Liang; Hoar, Timothy J.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0218.1

A Global Analysis of Wildfire Smoke Injection Heights Derived from Space-Based Multi-Angle Imaging
journal, October 2018

  • Val Martin, Maria; Kahn, Ralph; Tosca, Mika
  • Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.3390/rs10101609

Influence of carbon-nitrogen cycle coupling on land model response to CO 2 fertilization and climate variability : INFLUENCE OF CARBON-NITROGEN COUPLING
journal, December 2007

  • Thornton, Peter E.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Rosenbloom, Nan A.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 21, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GB002868

The North American Soil Moisture Database: Development and Applications
journal, August 2016

  • Quiring, Steven M.; Ford, Trent W.; Wang, Jessica K.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 97, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00263.1

A new snow cover fraction parametrization for the ECHAM4 GCM
journal, September 2001


The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions
journal, January 2012

  • Guenther, A. B.; Jiang, X.; Heald, C. L.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-5-1471-2012

Hydraulic diversity of forests regulates ecosystem resilience during drought
journal, September 2018

  • Anderegg, William R. L.; Konings, Alexandra G.; Trugman, Anna T.
  • Nature, Vol. 561, Issue 7724
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0539-7

Smoke injection heights from fires in North America: analysis of 5 years of satellite observations
journal, January 2010

  • Val Martin, M.; Logan, J. A.; Kahn, R. A.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-1491-2010

The Impact of Biomass Heat Storage on the Canopy Energy Balance and Atmospheric Stability in the Community Land Model
journal, January 2019

  • Swenson, Sean C.; Burns, Sean P.; Lawrence, David M.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001476

The International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) System: Design, Theory, and Implementation
journal, November 2018

  • Collier, Nathan; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Lawrence, David M.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001354

Confronting Weather and Climate Models with Observational Data from Soil Moisture Networks over the United States
journal, April 2016

  • Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wu, Jiexia; Norton, Holly E.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0196.1

The Partitioning of Evapotranspiration into Transpiration, Soil Evaporation, and Canopy Evaporation in a GCM: Impacts on Land–Atmosphere Interaction
journal, August 2007

  • Lawrence, David M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Oleson, Keith W.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 8, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM596.1

A GRACE ‐based assessment of interannual groundwater dynamics in the C ommunity L and M odel
journal, November 2015

  • Swenson, S. C.; Lawrence, D. M.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 51, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017582

Representation of nitrogen in climate change forecasts
journal, April 2015

  • Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Marklein, Alison R.; Bai, Edith
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2538

The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 1: Overview and experimental design
journal, January 2013

  • Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A. M.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-2121-2013

Change in terrestrial ecosystem water-use efficiency over the last three decades
journal, March 2015

  • Huang, Mengtian; Piao, Shilong; Sun, Yan
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12873

Recent increases in terrestrial carbon uptake at little cost to the water cycle
journal, July 2017


Pairing FLUXNET sites to validate model representations of land-use/land-cover change
journal, January 2018

  • Chen, Liang; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Guo, Zhichang
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 22, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-22-111-2018

What controls variation in carbon use efficiency among Amazonian tropical forests?
journal, October 2017

  • Doughty, Christopher E.; Goldsmith, Gregory R.; Raab, Nicolas
  • Biotropica, Vol. 50, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/btp.12504

Observed allocations of productivity and biomass, and turnover times in tropical forests are not accurately represented in CMIP5 Earth system models
journal, June 2015

  • Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Koven, Charles D.; Riley, William J.
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 10, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/6/064017

Improving the Numerical Solution of Soil Moisture–Based Richards Equation for Land Models with a Deep or Shallow Water Table
journal, February 2009


Evaluation of a Data Assimilation System for Land Surface Models Using CLM4.5
journal, October 2018

  • Fox, Andrew M.; Hoar, Timothy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001362

CO2 Elicits Long-Term Decline in Nitrogen Fixation
journal, May 2004


Implementation and comparison of a suite of heat stress metrics within the Community Land Model version 4.5
journal, January 2015

  • Buzan, J. R.; Oleson, K.; Huber, M.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-8-151-2015

Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models
journal, February 2014

  • Hoffman, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Arora, V. K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 119, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002381

Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration: A key uncertainty in the carbon cycle-climate feedback: PHYSIOLOGICAL TEMPERATURE ACCLIMATION
journal, October 2015

  • Lombardozzi, Danica L.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Smith, Nicholas G.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065934

A Physically Based Runoff Routing Model for Land Surface and Earth System Models
journal, June 2013

  • Li, Hongyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Wu, Huan
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 14, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-015.1

Assessing the use of subgrid land model output to study impacts of land cover change: Subgrid Output for Land Cover Impacts
journal, June 2016

  • Schultz, Natalie M.; Lee, Xuhui; Lawrence, Peter J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025094

Stomatal Function across Temporal and Spatial Scales: Deep-Time Trends, Land-Atmosphere Coupling and Global Models
journal, April 2017

  • Franks, Peter J.; Berry, Joseph A.; Lombardozzi, Danica L.
  • Plant Physiology, Vol. 174, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1104/pp.17.00287

Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise
journal, July 2013

  • Keenan, Trevor F.; Hollinger, David Y.; Bohrer, Gil
  • Nature, Vol. 499, Issue 7458
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12291

Global Relationships between Cropland Intensification and Summer Temperature Extremes over the Last 50 Years
journal, September 2017

  • Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Rhines, Andrew; Butler, Ethan E.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 30, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0096.1

A unifying framework for dinitrogen fixation in the terrestrial biosphere
journal, June 2008

  • Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Wang, Ying-Ping; Vitousek, Peter M.
  • Nature, Vol. 454, Issue 7202
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature07028

Improved simulation of the terrestrial hydrological cycle in permafrost regions by the Community Land Model: IMPROVED CLM COLD-REGION HYDROLOGY
journal, March 2012

  • Swenson, S. C.; Lawrence, D. M.; Lee, Hanna
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000165

Improving the Representation of Polar Snow and Firn in the Community Earth System Model: IMPROVING POLAR SNOW AND FIRN IN CESM
journal, November 2017

  • van Kampenhout, Leonardus; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lipscomb, William H.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017MS000988

TRY - a global database of plant traits: TRY - A GLOBAL DATABASE OF PLANT TRAITS
journal, June 2011


Tall Amazonian forests are less sensitive to precipitation variability
journal, May 2018

  • Giardina, Francesco; Konings, Alexandra G.; Kennedy, Daniel
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41561-018-0133-5

The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research
journal, September 2013

  • Hurrell, James W.; Holland, M. M.; Gent, P. R.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 94, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121.1

50 Years of the Monin–Obukhov Similarity Theory
journal, June 2006


Comparing optimal and empirical stomatal conductance models for application in Earth system models
journal, October 2018

  • Franks, Peter J.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Berry, Joseph A.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 24, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14445

ELEVATED CO 2 STIMULATES NET ACCUMULATIONS OF CARBON AND NITROGEN IN LAND ECOSYSTEMS: A META-ANALYSIS
journal, January 2006

  • Luo, Yiqi; Hui, Dafeng; Zhang, Deqiang
  • Ecology, Vol. 87, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1890/04-1724

Climate response to Amazon forest replacement by heterogeneous crop cover
journal, January 2015


GPCC's new land surface precipitation climatology based on quality-controlled in situ data and its role in quantifying the global water cycle
journal, March 2013

  • Schneider, Udo; Becker, Andreas; Finger, Peter
  • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 115, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00704-013-0860-x

Effects of model structural uncertainty on carbon cycle projections: biological nitrogen fixation as a case study
journal, April 2015


Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow
journal, January 2007

  • Flanner, Mark G.; Zender, Charles S.; Randerson, James T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue D11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JD008003

Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment studies
journal, January 2014

  • Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 202, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.12697

Biophysical impacts of climate-smart agriculture in the Midwest United States: Biophysical impacts of climate-smart agriculture
journal, January 2015

  • Bagley, Justin E.; Miller, Jesse; Bernacchi, Carl J.
  • Plant, Cell & Environment, Vol. 38, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1111/pce.12485

Estimating Global Ecosystem Isohydry/Anisohydry Using Active and Passive Microwave Satellite Data: ESTIMATE GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM ISOHYDRY/ANISOHYDRY
journal, December 2017

  • Li, Yan; Guan, Kaiyu; Gentine, Pierre
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 122, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JG003958

Ecosystem responses to elevated CO 2 governed by plant-soil interactions and the cost of nitrogen acquisition
journal, November 2017

  • Terrer, César; Vicca, Sara; Stocker, Benjamin D.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 217, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.14872

Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management
journal, June 2014

  • Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Ciais, Philippe
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1317323111

Representing leaf and root physiological traits in CLM improves global carbon and nitrogen cycling predictions: LEAF AND ROOT TRAITS IN CLM
journal, May 2016

  • Ghimire, Bardan; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015MS000538

The Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer over an Antarctic ice Sheet
journal, May 1999

  • Handorf, Dörthe; Foken, Thomas; Kottmeier, Christoph
  • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 91, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1023/A:1001889423449

Fertile forests produce biomass more efficiently: Forests’ biomass production efficiency
journal, April 2012


Process-level model evaluation: a snow and heat transfer metric
journal, January 2017

  • Slater, Andrew G.; Lawrence, David M.; Koven, Charles D.
  • The Cryosphere, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/tc-11-989-2017

The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project
journal, January 2011

  • Compo, G. P.; Whitaker, J. S.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 654
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.776

A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model
journal, January 2012


Description and evaluation of the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) v2.1
journal, January 2019

  • Lipscomb, William H.; Price, Stephen F.; Hoffman, Matthew J.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-12-387-2019

Large-scale prerain vegetation green-up across Africa
journal, June 2018

  • Adole, Tracy; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 24, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14310

Global patterns of drought deciduous phenology in semi-arid and savanna-type ecosystems
journal, November 2016

  • Dahlin, Kyla M.; Ponte, Dominick Del; Setlock, Emily
  • Ecography, Vol. 40, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/ecog.02443

Role of Fire in the Global Land Water Budget during the Twentieth Century due to Changing Ecosystems
journal, March 2017


The effect of vertically resolved soil biogeochemistry and alternate soil C and N models on C dynamics of CLM4
journal, January 2013


Reduction of forest soil respiration in response to nitrogen deposition
journal, April 2010

  • Janssens, I. A.; Dieleman, W.; Luyssaert, S.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo844

An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids
journal, January 2005

  • Mitchell, Timothy D.; Jones, Philip D.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 25, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.1181

A Functional Response Metric for the Temperature Sensitivity of Tropical Ecosystems
journal, April 2018

  • Keppel-Aleks, Gretchen; Basile, Samantha J.; Hoffman, Forrest M.
  • Earth Interactions, Vol. 22, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1175/EI-D-17-0017.1

The Community Land Model underestimates land-use CO 2 emissions by neglecting soil disturbance from cultivation
journal, January 2014

  • Levis, S.; Hartman, M. D.; Bonan, G. B.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-7-613-2014

Cover Crops May Cause Winter Warming in Snow-Covered Regions
journal, September 2018

  • Lombardozzi, D. L.; Bonan, G. B.; Wieder, W.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079000

Transpiration in the global water cycle
journal, June 2014


Mapping forest canopy height globally with spaceborne lidar
journal, January 2011

  • Simard, Marc; Pinto, Naiara; Fisher, Joshua B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue G4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JG001708

A gridded global data set of soil, intact regolith, and sedimentary deposit thicknesses for regional and global land surface modeling
journal, January 2016

  • Pelletier, Jon D.; Broxton, Patrick D.; Hazenberg, Pieter
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015MS000526

Modeling agriculture in the Community Land Model
journal, January 2013

  • Drewniak, B.; Song, J.; Prell, J.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-495-2013

Biological nitrogen fixation: rates, patterns and ecological controls in terrestrial ecosystems
journal, July 2013

  • Vitousek, Peter M.; Menge, Duncan N. L.; Reed, Sasha C.
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 368, Issue 1621
  • DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0119

The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project
journal, March 1996


Parameterization improvements and functional and structural advances in Version 4 of the Community Land Model
journal, January 2011

  • Lawrence, David M.; Oleson, Keith W.; Flanner, Mark G.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011MS000045

Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits
journal, January 2015

  • Atkin, Owen K.; Bloomfield, Keith J.; Reich, Peter B.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 206, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.13253

Nitrogen Limitation of net Primary Productivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems is Globally Distributed
journal, February 2008

  • LeBauer, David S.; Treseder, Kathleen K.
  • Ecology, Vol. 89, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1890/06-2057.1

Quantifying carbon-nitrogen feedbacks in the Community Land Model (CLM4): CARBON-NITROGEN FEEDBACKS IN CLM4
journal, April 2010

  • Bonan, Gordon B.; Levis, Samuel
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GL042430

Global patterns of land-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived from eddy covariance, satellite, and meteorological observations
journal, January 2011

  • Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Margolis, Hank A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JG001566

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    When Does Vapor Pressure Deficit Drive or Reduce Evapotranspiration?
    journal, October 2019

    • Massmann, Adam; Gentine, Pierre; Lin, Changjie
    • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ms001790