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Title: Preparing for the Next Generation of EUV Lithography at the Center for X-ray Optics

Abstract

The introduction of EUV lithography into high-volume semiconductor manufacturing this year represents a monumental milestone for EUV technology. After nearly 30 years of development, the EUV research community has overcome many of the key obstacles required to enable the long-awaited integration of EUV lithography into the lab. These obstacles have included: the development of a stable, high-powered EUV source to ensure adequate exposure tool reliability; controlling EUV mask defects and mask contamination; and the development of EUV resists with adequate sensitivity, resolution, and line width roughness to meet the tolerances required for high-volume manufacturing. As EUV moves into its second generation, there will be new challenges facing the community as it works to push EUV technology into the future. Smaller feature sizes will be achieved using higher numerical aperture optics, which are planned to have an anamorphic geometry (asymmetric magnification and numerical aperture between horizontal and vertical axes) to overcome 3D effects at the mask. This new geometry and its larger angle ranges make understanding mask absorber and multilayer effects all the more important. New methods for high-NA wavefront metrology need to be tested to ensure that these optical systems can be aligned to operate with minimal aberrations. Mask defectsmore » need to continue to be studied, and the inclusion of EUV pellicles in the roadmap requires that mask inspection and review systems adapt accordingly. Finally, new resists must be developed to support the increased resolution of feature sizes below 8 nm half pitch. The Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) at Berkeley Lab has been a leader in EUV research for the past 25 years. Leveraging 13.5 nm EUV light from the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility, CXRO is home to several EUV and soft X-ray (SXR) research tools that have provided important insights into EUV resists, masks, and coatings. The 0.3 NA Microfield exposure tool (MET) and Dose Calibration Tool (DCT) have played an instrumental role in the development of the current generation of high-resolution EUV resists. The Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) and its successor, SHARP, have enabled aerial image analysis, providing key insights into mask defects, 3D mask effects, illumination, and aberrations. And the CXRO Reflectometer continues to be the industry standard in multilayer coating and EUV mask scattering metrology. To address the new challenges facing the next generation of EUV lithography, CXRO has upgraded its suite of EUV research tools. The 0.5 NA MET5 is a newly commissioned projection lithography tool that is capable of printing feature sizes down to 8 nm half pitch. A new radiation chemistry program is deploying several techniques aimed at dissecting the role of primary photoelectrons and secondary electrons in EUV resists. The SHARP microscope has been outfitted with anamorphic zone plate lenses that can emulate the geometry of next-generation EUV scanners, and the reflectometer has been applied to new scattering experiments for the purpose of understanding the 3D effects of EUV mask multilayers, as well as determining mask properties using scattering profiles. In parallel with these tools, the CXRO High-NA Wavefront Sensing Program is developing high-resolution wavefront sensors suitable for measuring aberrations at high NA. This article presents an overview of these programs and describes how they will address the primary challenges that face the EUV community as it moves to the next generation of EUV lithography.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for X-ray Optics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1582044
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Synchrotron Radiation News
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0894-0886
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Miyakawa, Ryan, and Naulleau, Patrick. Preparing for the Next Generation of EUV Lithography at the Center for X-ray Optics. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1080/08940886.2019.1634432.
Miyakawa, Ryan, & Naulleau, Patrick. Preparing for the Next Generation of EUV Lithography at the Center for X-ray Optics. United States. doi:10.1080/08940886.2019.1634432.
Miyakawa, Ryan, and Naulleau, Patrick. Thu . "Preparing for the Next Generation of EUV Lithography at the Center for X-ray Optics". United States. doi:10.1080/08940886.2019.1634432.
@article{osti_1582044,
title = {Preparing for the Next Generation of EUV Lithography at the Center for X-ray Optics},
author = {Miyakawa, Ryan and Naulleau, Patrick},
abstractNote = {The introduction of EUV lithography into high-volume semiconductor manufacturing this year represents a monumental milestone for EUV technology. After nearly 30 years of development, the EUV research community has overcome many of the key obstacles required to enable the long-awaited integration of EUV lithography into the lab. These obstacles have included: the development of a stable, high-powered EUV source to ensure adequate exposure tool reliability; controlling EUV mask defects and mask contamination; and the development of EUV resists with adequate sensitivity, resolution, and line width roughness to meet the tolerances required for high-volume manufacturing. As EUV moves into its second generation, there will be new challenges facing the community as it works to push EUV technology into the future. Smaller feature sizes will be achieved using higher numerical aperture optics, which are planned to have an anamorphic geometry (asymmetric magnification and numerical aperture between horizontal and vertical axes) to overcome 3D effects at the mask. This new geometry and its larger angle ranges make understanding mask absorber and multilayer effects all the more important. New methods for high-NA wavefront metrology need to be tested to ensure that these optical systems can be aligned to operate with minimal aberrations. Mask defects need to continue to be studied, and the inclusion of EUV pellicles in the roadmap requires that mask inspection and review systems adapt accordingly. Finally, new resists must be developed to support the increased resolution of feature sizes below 8 nm half pitch. The Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) at Berkeley Lab has been a leader in EUV research for the past 25 years. Leveraging 13.5 nm EUV light from the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility, CXRO is home to several EUV and soft X-ray (SXR) research tools that have provided important insights into EUV resists, masks, and coatings. The 0.3 NA Microfield exposure tool (MET) and Dose Calibration Tool (DCT) have played an instrumental role in the development of the current generation of high-resolution EUV resists. The Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) and its successor, SHARP, have enabled aerial image analysis, providing key insights into mask defects, 3D mask effects, illumination, and aberrations. And the CXRO Reflectometer continues to be the industry standard in multilayer coating and EUV mask scattering metrology. To address the new challenges facing the next generation of EUV lithography, CXRO has upgraded its suite of EUV research tools. The 0.5 NA MET5 is a newly commissioned projection lithography tool that is capable of printing feature sizes down to 8 nm half pitch. A new radiation chemistry program is deploying several techniques aimed at dissecting the role of primary photoelectrons and secondary electrons in EUV resists. The SHARP microscope has been outfitted with anamorphic zone plate lenses that can emulate the geometry of next-generation EUV scanners, and the reflectometer has been applied to new scattering experiments for the purpose of understanding the 3D effects of EUV mask multilayers, as well as determining mask properties using scattering profiles. In parallel with these tools, the CXRO High-NA Wavefront Sensing Program is developing high-resolution wavefront sensors suitable for measuring aberrations at high NA. This article presents an overview of these programs and describes how they will address the primary challenges that face the EUV community as it moves to the next generation of EUV lithography.},
doi = {10.1080/08940886.2019.1634432},
journal = {Synchrotron Radiation News},
number = 4,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Reconstructing the three-dimensional latent image of extreme ultraviolet resists with resonant soft x-ray scattering
journal, April 2019

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