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Title: Dramatic effect of oxide on measured liquid metal rheology

Abstract

Liquid metals have traditionally been treated as Newtonian liquids, but several researchers have recently suggested that some metals may shear thin. While apparent shear thinning can be caused by surface oxidation, the reports of shear-thinning metals were investigated using cup and bob type rheometers, which are expected to only be weakly impacted by the surface contamination effects. We show here that even small amounts of oxide on the surface of liquid metals can cause dramatic changes to the measured viscosity of the sample. Using a Searle-type rotational rheometer, we measured the viscosity of eutectic gallium indium and tin in a low-oxygen environment. When either metal is slightly oxidized, the measured viscosity increases by orders of magnitude and the liquid displays erroneous shear-thinning behavior. When the oxide is removed via an active flux, the measured viscosity is Newtonian. The findings outlined here provide insight into the difficulties of measuring the viscosity of easily oxidized liquids and confirm that liquid metals are likely best described as Newtonian liquids at all measured shear rates.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1581894
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1579583
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-779359
Journal ID: ISSN 0148-6055; 972732
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Rheology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 64; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0148-6055
Publisher:
Society of Rheology
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Elton, Eric S., Reeve, Thomas C., Thornley, Luke E., Joshipura, Ishan D., Paul, Phillip H., Pascall, Andrew J., and Jeffries, Jason R. Dramatic effect of oxide on measured liquid metal rheology. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1122/1.5117144.
Elton, Eric S., Reeve, Thomas C., Thornley, Luke E., Joshipura, Ishan D., Paul, Phillip H., Pascall, Andrew J., & Jeffries, Jason R. Dramatic effect of oxide on measured liquid metal rheology. United States. doi:10.1122/1.5117144.
Elton, Eric S., Reeve, Thomas C., Thornley, Luke E., Joshipura, Ishan D., Paul, Phillip H., Pascall, Andrew J., and Jeffries, Jason R. Tue . "Dramatic effect of oxide on measured liquid metal rheology". United States. doi:10.1122/1.5117144.
@article{osti_1581894,
title = {Dramatic effect of oxide on measured liquid metal rheology},
author = {Elton, Eric S. and Reeve, Thomas C. and Thornley, Luke E. and Joshipura, Ishan D. and Paul, Phillip H. and Pascall, Andrew J. and Jeffries, Jason R.},
abstractNote = {Liquid metals have traditionally been treated as Newtonian liquids, but several researchers have recently suggested that some metals may shear thin. While apparent shear thinning can be caused by surface oxidation, the reports of shear-thinning metals were investigated using cup and bob type rheometers, which are expected to only be weakly impacted by the surface contamination effects. We show here that even small amounts of oxide on the surface of liquid metals can cause dramatic changes to the measured viscosity of the sample. Using a Searle-type rotational rheometer, we measured the viscosity of eutectic gallium indium and tin in a low-oxygen environment. When either metal is slightly oxidized, the measured viscosity increases by orders of magnitude and the liquid displays erroneous shear-thinning behavior. When the oxide is removed via an active flux, the measured viscosity is Newtonian. The findings outlined here provide insight into the difficulties of measuring the viscosity of easily oxidized liquids and confirm that liquid metals are likely best described as Newtonian liquids at all measured shear rates.},
doi = {10.1122/1.5117144},
journal = {Journal of Rheology},
number = 1,
volume = 64,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
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This content will become publicly available on December 17, 2020
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