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Title: Fast Charging of Li-Ion Cells: Part III. Relaxation Dynamics and Trap-Controlled Lithium Ion Transport

Abstract

Fast charging of Li-ion batteries would ease consumer concerns regarding refueling time of electric vehicles. In this series of articles, we are systematically examining the effects of high currents flowing through the cell. Here we consider open-circuit relaxation dynamics for cell voltage and individual electrode potentials after abrupt termination of steady-state charging currents (1-6C) or short current pulses (< 30 s) of either polarity (to 16C). We demonstrate that dispersive kinetics observed after these current perturbations become faster for higher currents applied before the rest period. Our observations indicate that the voltage relaxation behaviors (i) depend on the current during charge, and less so on the state of charge, (ii) display universal stretched-exponential kinetics, (iii) can be induced by a short current pulse, (iv) require a minimum amount of charge transfer during the pulse, and (v) originate mainly from the oxide cathode. Trap controlled Li + ion transport through a partially disordered oxygen-depleted subsurface layer in the cathode is suggested as a possible origin for the relaxation behavior. The slow multidecadal responses to high currents can cause the nonlinearities observed during rapid charging of the electrochemical cells, reported in Part 2 of this series.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1581439
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 166; Journal Issue: 16; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; NCM523; dispersive kinetics; graphite; impedance; layered oxides; lithium plating

Citation Formats

Shkrob, Ilya A., Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F., and Abraham, Daniel P. Fast Charging of Li-Ion Cells: Part III. Relaxation Dynamics and Trap-Controlled Lithium Ion Transport. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1149/2.0511916jes.
Shkrob, Ilya A., Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F., & Abraham, Daniel P. Fast Charging of Li-Ion Cells: Part III. Relaxation Dynamics and Trap-Controlled Lithium Ion Transport. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0511916jes.
Shkrob, Ilya A., Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F., and Abraham, Daniel P. Mon . "Fast Charging of Li-Ion Cells: Part III. Relaxation Dynamics and Trap-Controlled Lithium Ion Transport". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0511916jes. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1581439.
@article{osti_1581439,
title = {Fast Charging of Li-Ion Cells: Part III. Relaxation Dynamics and Trap-Controlled Lithium Ion Transport},
author = {Shkrob, Ilya A. and Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F. and Abraham, Daniel P.},
abstractNote = {Fast charging of Li-ion batteries would ease consumer concerns regarding refueling time of electric vehicles. In this series of articles, we are systematically examining the effects of high currents flowing through the cell. Here we consider open-circuit relaxation dynamics for cell voltage and individual electrode potentials after abrupt termination of steady-state charging currents (1-6C) or short current pulses (< 30 s) of either polarity (to 16C). We demonstrate that dispersive kinetics observed after these current perturbations become faster for higher currents applied before the rest period. Our observations indicate that the voltage relaxation behaviors (i) depend on the current during charge, and less so on the state of charge, (ii) display universal stretched-exponential kinetics, (iii) can be induced by a short current pulse, (iv) require a minimum amount of charge transfer during the pulse, and (v) originate mainly from the oxide cathode. Trap controlled Li+ ion transport through a partially disordered oxygen-depleted subsurface layer in the cathode is suggested as a possible origin for the relaxation behavior. The slow multidecadal responses to high currents can cause the nonlinearities observed during rapid charging of the electrochemical cells, reported in Part 2 of this series.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0511916jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 16,
volume = 166,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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