skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Emerging Zero-Standby Solutions for Miscellaneous Electric Loads and the Internet of Things

Abstract

Despite technical advances in efficiency, devices in standby continue to consume up to 16% of residential electricity. Finding practical, cost-effective reductions is difficult. While the per-unit power consumption has fallen, the number of units continuously drawing power continues to grow. This work reviews a family of technologies that can eliminate standby consumption in many types of electrical plug loads. It also investigates several solutions in detail and develops prototypes. First, burst mode and sleep transistors are established as building blocks for zero-standby solutions. This work then studies the application of two types of wake-up signals. The first is from an optical transmission, and is applicable to remote-controlled devices with a line-of-sight activation, such as set-top boxes, ceiling fans, and motorized curtains. The second is from a wake-up radio, and is applicable to any wireless products. No single technology will address all standby power situations; however, these emerging solutions appear to have broad applicability to save standby energy in miscellaneous plug loads.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1581339
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Electronics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2079-9292
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; standby consumption; sleep transistor; energy harvesting; burst mode; wake-up radio

Citation Formats

Gerber, Daniel L., Meier, Alan, Liou, Richard, and Hosbach, Robert. Emerging Zero-Standby Solutions for Miscellaneous Electric Loads and the Internet of Things. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3390/electronics8050570.
Gerber, Daniel L., Meier, Alan, Liou, Richard, & Hosbach, Robert. Emerging Zero-Standby Solutions for Miscellaneous Electric Loads and the Internet of Things. United States. doi:10.3390/electronics8050570.
Gerber, Daniel L., Meier, Alan, Liou, Richard, and Hosbach, Robert. Thu . "Emerging Zero-Standby Solutions for Miscellaneous Electric Loads and the Internet of Things". United States. doi:10.3390/electronics8050570. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1581339.
@article{osti_1581339,
title = {Emerging Zero-Standby Solutions for Miscellaneous Electric Loads and the Internet of Things},
author = {Gerber, Daniel L. and Meier, Alan and Liou, Richard and Hosbach, Robert},
abstractNote = {Despite technical advances in efficiency, devices in standby continue to consume up to 16% of residential electricity. Finding practical, cost-effective reductions is difficult. While the per-unit power consumption has fallen, the number of units continuously drawing power continues to grow. This work reviews a family of technologies that can eliminate standby consumption in many types of electrical plug loads. It also investigates several solutions in detail and develops prototypes. First, burst mode and sleep transistors are established as building blocks for zero-standby solutions. This work then studies the application of two types of wake-up signals. The first is from an optical transmission, and is applicable to remote-controlled devices with a line-of-sight activation, such as set-top boxes, ceiling fans, and motorized curtains. The second is from a wake-up radio, and is applicable to any wireless products. No single technology will address all standby power situations; however, these emerging solutions appear to have broad applicability to save standby energy in miscellaneous plug loads.},
doi = {10.3390/electronics8050570},
journal = {Electronics},
number = 5,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Measuring the use of residential standby power in Taiwan
journal, December 2011


Standby electricity consumption and saving potentials of Turkish households
journal, February 2014


Real-time activity recognition for energy efficiency in buildings
journal, February 2018


Standby and Active Leakage Current Control and Minimization in CMOS VLSI Circuits
journal, April 2005


Power-Management Features of R-Mobile U2, an Integrated Application Processor and Baseband Processor
journal, November 2013

  • Fukuoka, Kazuki; Maeda, Noriaki; Nii, Koji
  • IEEE Micro, Vol. 33, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1109/MM.2013.109

A self-powered photosensor switch detects only rising edge of infrared-light pulse for wireless zero-standby-power wake-up receiver
conference, November 2013


Microelectromechanical detector of infrared spectral signatures with near-zero standby power consumption
conference, June 2017

  • Rajaram, Vageeswar; Qian, Zhenyun; Kang, Sungho
  • 2017 19th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS)
  • DOI: 10.1109/TRANSDUCERS.2017.7994181

Zero-power infrared digitizers based on plasmonically enhanced micromechanical photoswitches
journal, September 2017

  • Qian, Zhenyun; Kang, Sungho; Rajaram, Vageeswar
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 12, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2017.147

Zero standby power remote control system using light power transmission
journal, November 2011

  • Kang, Sungmuk; Park, Kyungjin; Shin, Seunghwan
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 57, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2011.6131134

Zero Standby Solutions with Optical Energy Harvesting from a Laser Pointer
journal, November 2018


Reduce the standby power consumption of a microwave oven
journal, February 2013

  • Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Bai, Ying-Wen; Lin, Ming-Bo
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 59, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2013.6490241

Wake-up time Measurement of Wireless Sensor Node with Zero Standby-power [Wake-up time Measurement of Wireless Sensor Node with Zero Standby-power]
conference, September 2016

  • Takaichi, Yasunobu; Koide, Daichi; Yamawaki, Akira
  • Proceedings of the 4th IIAE International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Image Processing 2016
  • DOI: 10.12792/icisip2016.040

A Fire Alarm Sensor Node with Long Battery Life by Zero Standby Power Consumption [A Fire Alarm Sensor Node with Long Battery Life by Zero Standby Power Consumption]
conference, March 2017

  • Kuwatani, Toru; Takaichi, Yasunobu; Yamawaki, Akira
  • The Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Industrial Application Engineering 2017
  • DOI: 10.12792/iciae2017.059

Wake-up receivers for wireless sensor networks: benefits and challenges
journal, August 2009


Wake-up radio receiver based power minimization techniques for wireless sensor networks: A review
journal, December 2014


Performance Evaluation and Comparative Analysis of SubCarrier Modulation Wake-up Radio Systems for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks
journal, December 2013

  • Oller, Joaquim; Demirkol, Ilker; Casademont, Jordi
  • Sensors, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3390/s140100022

24.5 A 4.5nW wake-up radio with −69dBm sensitivity
conference, February 2017

  • Jiang, Haowei; Wang, Po-Han Peter; Gao, Li
  • 2017 IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC), 2017 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2017.7870438

A Near-Zero-Power Wake-Up Receiver Achieving −69-dBm Sensitivity
journal, June 2018

  • Wang, Po-Han Peter; Jiang, Haowei; Gao, Li
  • IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 53, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2018.2815658

A −76dBm 7.4nW wakeup radio with automatic offset compensation
conference, February 2018

  • Moody, Jesse; Bassirian, Pouyan; Roy, Abhishek
  • 2018 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), 2018 IEEE International Solid - State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2018.8310379

Nanowatt-Level Wakeup Receiver Front Ends Using MEMS Resonators for Impedance Transformation
journal, April 2019

  • Bassirian, Pouyan; Moody, Jesse; Lu, Ruochen
  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 67, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2019.2894645

Design and implementation of a PIR luminaire with zero standby power using a photovoltaic array in enough daylight
journal, August 2013

  • Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Bai, Ying-Wen; Lin, Ming-Bo
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 59, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2013.6626230

Design and implementation of a socket with zero standby power using a photovoltaic array
journal, November 2010

  • Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Bai, Ying-Wen; Chu, Chun-An
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 56, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2010.5681157

Design optimization of zero power wake-up receiver in Power line communication
conference, June 2016

  • Golchin, Parian; Tosato, Pietro; Brunelli, Davide
  • 2016 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)
  • DOI: 10.1109/SPEEDAM.2016.7526028

Zero-energy wake up for power line communications in smart cities
conference, September 2016

  • Golchin, Parian; Tosato, Pietro; Brunelli, Davide
  • 2016 IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISC2.2016.7580843

Evaluating energy savings in WoL-enabled networks of PCs
conference, May 2013

  • Ricciardi, Sergio; Santos-Boada, German; Careglio, Davide
  • 2013 IEEE 22nd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2013.6739357

Event driven persistent sensing: Overcoming the energy and lifetime limitations in unattended wireless sensors
conference, October 2016


21.6 A 12nW always-on acoustic sensing and object recognition microsystem using frequency-domain feature extraction and SVM classification
conference, February 2017

  • Jeong, Seokhyeon; Chen, Yu; Jang, Taekwang
  • 2017 IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC), 2017 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2017.7870411

Picowatt gas sensing and resistance switching in tunneling nano-gap electrodes
conference, October 2016


A High-Efficiency AC-to-DC Adaptor With a Low Standby Power Consumption
journal, January 2008

  • Lo, Yu-Kang; Yen, Shang-Chin; Lin, Chung-Yi
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 55, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2007.907673

Reducing the system standby power of a personal computer
journal, March 2015


Automatic room light intensity detection and control using a microprocessor and light sensors
journal, August 2008


Design and implementation of a low-cost intelligent device to standby mode consumption reduction in already existing electrical equipment
journal, May 2017

  • Pompermayer, Daniel C.; Có, Márcio A.; Donadel, Clainer B.
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 63, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2017.014800

Design and implementation of an intelligent energy saving system based on standby power reduction for a future zero-energy home environment
journal, August 2013

  • Byun, Jinsung; Park, Sunghoi; Kang, Byeongkwan
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 59, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2013.6626231

An implementation of adaptively power-managed set-top box
conference, October 2016

  • Kim, Junghak; Park, Hyunho; Lee, Yong-Tae
  • 2016 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICTC.2016.7763315

Developing nontrivial standby power management using consumer pattern tracking for on-demand appliance energy saving over cloud networks
journal, August 2016

  • Shin, Taehwan; Jeon, Hong-Tae; Byun, Jinsung
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 62, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2016.7613191

Network-Assisted Management of Power-Efficient Set-Top Boxes for Enhancing User Experience
journal, February 2018

  • Park, Hyunho; Kim, Junghak; Jung, Eui-Suk
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 64, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2018.2812058

Ambient RF Energy-Harvesting Technologies for Self-Sustainable Standalone Wireless Sensor Platforms
journal, November 2014


Wireless Networks With RF Energy Harvesting: A Contemporary Survey
journal, July 2015