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Title: Deciphering the Stress State of Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma and Southern Kansas Based on an Improved Stress Map

Abstract

Fault location and geometry are prime considerations in the reactivation of preexisting faults. Here, we combine relocated earthquake catalogs and focal mechanisms to delineate seismogenic faults in Oklahoma and southern Kansas and analyze their stress state. Initially, we identify and map seismogenic faults based on earthquake clustering. We then obtain an improved stress map using 2,047 high-quality focal mechanisms. The regional stress map shows a gradual transition from oblique normal faulting in western Oklahoma to strike-slip faulting in central and eastern Oklahoma. Stress amplitude ratio shows a strong correlation with pore pressure from hydrogeologic models, suggesting that pore pressure exhibits a measurable influence on stress patterns. Finally, we assess fault stress state via 3-D Mohr circles; a parameter understress is used to quantify the level of fault criticality (with 0 meaning critically stressed faults and 1 meaning faults with no applied shear stress). Our findings suggest that most active faults have near vertical planes (planarity >0.8 and dip >70°), and there is a strong correlation between fault length and maximum magnitude on each fault. The fault trends show prominent conjugate sets that strike [55–75°] and [105–125°]. A comparison with mapped sedimentary faults and basement fractures reveals common tectonic control. Basedmore » on 3-D Mohr circles, we find that 78% of the faults are critically stressed (understress ≤0.2), while several seismogenic faults are misoriented with high understress (>0.4). Fault geometry and local stress fields may be used to evaluate potential seismic hazard, as the largest earthquakes tend to occur on long, critically stressed faults.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  3. San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1581273
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-27043
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313; TRN: US2100716
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 124; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; induced seismicity; stress field; stress state of fault; pore pressure; sequence evolution; earthquake hazard

Citation Formats

Qin, Yan, Chen, Xiaowei, Walter, Jacob I., Haffener, Jackson, Trugman, Daniel T., Carpenter, Brett M., Weingarten, Matthew, and Kolawole, Folarin. Deciphering the Stress State of Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma and Southern Kansas Based on an Improved Stress Map. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2019JB018377.
Qin, Yan, Chen, Xiaowei, Walter, Jacob I., Haffener, Jackson, Trugman, Daniel T., Carpenter, Brett M., Weingarten, Matthew, & Kolawole, Folarin. Deciphering the Stress State of Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma and Southern Kansas Based on an Improved Stress Map. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JB018377
Qin, Yan, Chen, Xiaowei, Walter, Jacob I., Haffener, Jackson, Trugman, Daniel T., Carpenter, Brett M., Weingarten, Matthew, and Kolawole, Folarin. Sat . "Deciphering the Stress State of Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma and Southern Kansas Based on an Improved Stress Map". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JB018377. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1581273.
@article{osti_1581273,
title = {Deciphering the Stress State of Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma and Southern Kansas Based on an Improved Stress Map},
author = {Qin, Yan and Chen, Xiaowei and Walter, Jacob I. and Haffener, Jackson and Trugman, Daniel T. and Carpenter, Brett M. and Weingarten, Matthew and Kolawole, Folarin},
abstractNote = {Fault location and geometry are prime considerations in the reactivation of preexisting faults. Here, we combine relocated earthquake catalogs and focal mechanisms to delineate seismogenic faults in Oklahoma and southern Kansas and analyze their stress state. Initially, we identify and map seismogenic faults based on earthquake clustering. We then obtain an improved stress map using 2,047 high-quality focal mechanisms. The regional stress map shows a gradual transition from oblique normal faulting in western Oklahoma to strike-slip faulting in central and eastern Oklahoma. Stress amplitude ratio shows a strong correlation with pore pressure from hydrogeologic models, suggesting that pore pressure exhibits a measurable influence on stress patterns. Finally, we assess fault stress state via 3-D Mohr circles; a parameter understress is used to quantify the level of fault criticality (with 0 meaning critically stressed faults and 1 meaning faults with no applied shear stress). Our findings suggest that most active faults have near vertical planes (planarity >0.8 and dip >70°), and there is a strong correlation between fault length and maximum magnitude on each fault. The fault trends show prominent conjugate sets that strike [55–75°] and [105–125°]. A comparison with mapped sedimentary faults and basement fractures reveals common tectonic control. Based on 3-D Mohr circles, we find that 78% of the faults are critically stressed (understress ≤0.2), while several seismogenic faults are misoriented with high understress (>0.4). Fault geometry and local stress fields may be used to evaluate potential seismic hazard, as the largest earthquakes tend to occur on long, critically stressed faults.},
doi = {10.1029/2019JB018377},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
number = 12,
volume = 124,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Kolawole, Folarin; Simpson Turko, Molly; Carpenter, Brett M.</span> </li> <li> Basin Research, Vol. 32, Issue 6</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12433" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1111/bre.12433<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All Cited By</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar Records in DOE PAGES and OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1537313-characterizing-potential-injection-induced-fault-reactivation-through-subsurface-structural-mapping-stress-field-analysis-wellington-field-sumner-county-kansas-injection-induced-fault-slip-kansas" itemprop="url">Characterizing the Potential for Injection-Induced Fault Reactivation Through Subsurface Structural Mapping and Stress Field Analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas: Injection-Induced Fault Slip, Kansas</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Schwab, Drew R.</span> ; <span class="author">Bidgoli, Tandis S.</span> ; <span class="author">Taylor, Michael H.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Kansas, like other parts of the central U.S., has experienced a recent increase in seismicity. Correlation of these events with brine disposal operations suggests pore fluid pressure increases are reactivating preexisting faults, but rigorous evaluation at injection sites is lacking. Here we determine the suitability of CO<sub>2</sub> injection into the Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group for long-term storage and into a Mississippian reservoir for enhanced oil recovery in Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. To determine the potential for injection-induced earthquakes, we map subsurface faults and estimate in situ stresses, perform slip and dilation tendency analyses to identify well-oriented faults relative to the<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> estimated stress field, and determine the pressure changes required to induce slip at reservoir and basement depths. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data reveal 12 near-vertical faults, mostly striking NNE, consistent with nodal planes from moment tensor solutions from recent earthquakes in the region. Most of the faults cut both reservoirs and several clearly penetrate the Precambrian basement. Drilling-induced fractures (N = 40) identified from image logs and inversion of earthquake moment tensor solutions (N = 65) indicate that the maximum horizontal stress is approximately EW. Slip tendency analysis indicates that faults striking <020° are stable under current reservoir conditions, whereas faults striking 020°–049° may be prone to reactivation with increasing pore fluid pressure. Although the proposed injection volume (40,000 t) is unlikely to reactive faults at reservoir depths, high-rate injection operations could reach pressures beyond the critical threshold for slip within the basement, as demonstrated by the large number of injection-induced earthquakes west of the study area.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 7<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1002/2017jb014071" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1537313" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >https://doi.org/10.1002/2017jb014071</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1537313" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1537313" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1420310-small-scale-field-test-demonstrating-co2-sequestration-arbuckle-saline-aquifer-co2-eor-wellington-field-sumner-county-kansas" itemprop="url">Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO<sub>2</sub> Sequestration In Arbuckle Saline Aquifer And By CO<sub>2</sub>-Eor At Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Technical Report</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Holubnyak, Yevhen Eugene</span> ; <span class="author">Watney, Lynn</span> ; <span class="author">Hollenbach, Jennifer</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">The objectives of this project are to understand the processes that occur when a maximum of 70,000 metric tonnes of CO<sub>2</sub> are injected into two different formations to evaluate the response in different lithofacies and depositional environments. The evaluation will be accomplished through the use of both in situ and indirect MVA (monitoring, verification, and accounting) technologies. The project will optimize for carbon storage accounting for 99% of the CO<sub>2</sub> using lab and field testing and comprehensive characterization and modeling techniques. Site characterization and CO<sub>2</sub> injection should demonstrate state-of-the-art MVA tools and techniques to monitor and visualize the injected CO<sub>2</sub><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> plume and to refine geomodels developed using nearly continuous core, exhaustive wireline logs, and well tests and a multi-component 3-D seismic survey. Reservoir simulation studies will map the injected CO<sub>2</sub> plume and estimate tonnage of CO<sub>2</sub> stored in solution, as residual gas, and by mineralization and integrate MVA results and reservoir models shall be used to evaluate CO<sub>2</sub> leakage. A rapid-response mitigation plan was developed to minimize CO<sub>2</sub> leakage and provide a comprehensive risk management strategy. The CO<sub>2</sub> was intended to be supplied from a reliable facility and have an adequate delivery and quality of CO<sub>2</sub>. However, several unforeseen circumstances complicated this plan: (1) the initially negotiated CO<sub>2</sub> supply facility went offline and contracts associated with CO<sub>2</sub> supply had to be renegotiated, (2) a UIC Class VI permit proved to be difficult to obtain due to the experimental nature of the project. Both subjects are detailed in separate deliverables attached to this report. The CO<sub>2</sub> enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and geologic storage in Mississippian carbonate reservoir was sucessully deployed. Approximately 20,000 metric tons of CO<sub>2</sub> was injected in the upper part of the Mississippian reservoir to verify CO<sub>2</sub> EOR viability in carbonate reservoirs and evaluate a potential of transitioning to geologic CO<sub>2</sub> storage through EOR. A total of 1,101 truckloads, 19,803 metric tons—an average of 120 tonnes per day—were delivered over the course of injection that lasted from January 9 to June 21, 2016. After cessation of CO<sub>2</sub> injection, the KGS 2-32 well was converted to water injector and continues to operate. CO<sub>2</sub> EOR progression in the field was monitored weekly with fluid level, temperature, and production recording and formation fluid composition sampling. It is important to note that normally, CO<sub>2</sub> EOR pilots are less efficient than commercial operations due to lack of directional and precise well control, lack of surface facilities for CO<sub>2</sub> recycling, and other factors. As a result of this pilot CO<sub>2</sub> injection, the observed incremental average oil production increase was ~68% with only ~18% of injected CO<sub>2</sub> produced back. Decline curve analysis forecasts of additional cumulative oil produced were 32.44M STB to the end of 2027. Wellington Mississippian pilot efficiency by the end of forecast calculations is 11 MCF per barrel of produced oil. Using 32M STB oil production and $1,964,063 cost of CO<sub>2</sub>, CO<sub>2</sub> EOR cost per barrel of oil production is ~$60. Simple but robust monitoring technologies proved to be very efficient in detecting and locating CO<sub>2</sub>. High CO<sub>2</sub> reservoir retentions with low yields within an actively producing field could help to estimate real-world risks of CO<sub>2</sub> geological storage for future projects. The Wellington Field CO<sub>2</sub> EOR was executed in a controlled environment with high efficiency. This case study proves that CO<sub>2</sub> EOR could be successfully applied in Kansas carbonate reservoirs if CO<sub>2</sub> sources and associated infrastructure are available. Recent developments in unconventional resources development in Mid-Continent USA and associated large volume disposal of backflow water and the resulting seismic activity have brought more focus and attention to the Arbuckle Group in southern Kansas. Despite the commercial interest, limited essential information about reservoir properties and structural elements has impeded the management and regulation of disposal, an issue brought to the forefront by recent seismicity in and near areas of large volumes and rates of brine disposal. The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) collected, compiled, and analyzed available data, including well logs, core data, step rate tests, drill stem tests, 2-D and 3-D seismic data, water level measurements, and others types of data. Several exploratory wells were drilled and core was collected and modern suites of logs were analyzed. Reservoir properties were populated into several site-specific geological models. The geological models illustrate the highly heterogeneous nature of the Arbuckle Group. Vertical and horizontal variability results in several distinct hydro-stratigraphic units that are the result of both depositional and diagenetic processes. During the course of this project, it has been demonstrated that advanced seismic interpretation methods can be used successfully for characterization of the Mississippian reservoir and Arbuckle saline aquifer. Analysis of post-stack 3-D seismic data at the Mississippian reservoir showed the response of a gradational velocity transition. Pre-stack gather analysis showed that porosity zones of the Mississippian and Arbuckle reservoirs exhibit characteristic amplitude versus offset (AVO) response. Simultaneous AVO inversion estimated P- and S-impedances. The 3-D survey gather azimuthal anisotropy analysis (AVAZ) provided information about the fault and fracture network and showed good agreement to the regional stress field and well data. Mississippian reservoir porosity and fracture predictions agreed well with the observed mobility of injected CO<sub>2</sub> in KGS well 2-32. Fluid substitution modeling predicted acoustic impedance reduction in the Mississippian carbonate reservoir introduced by the presence of CO<sub>2</sub>. Seismicity in the United States midcontinent has increased by orders of magnitude over the past decade. Spatiotemporal correlations of seismicity to wastewater injection operations have suggested that injection-related pore fluid pressure increases are inducing the earthquakes. In this investigation, we examine earthquake occurrence in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma and its relation to the change in pore pressure. The main source of data comes from the Wellington Array in the Wellington oil field, in Sumner County, Kansas, which has monitored for earthquakes in central Sumner County, Kansas, since early 2015. The seismometer array was established to monitor CO<sub>2</sub> injection operations at Wellington Field. Although no seismicity was detected in association with the spring 2016 Mississippian CO<sub>2</sub> injection, the array has recorded more than 2,500 earthquakes in the region and is providing valuable understanding to induced seismicity. A catalog of earthquakes was built from this data and was analyzed for spatial and temporal changes, stress information, and anisotropy information. The region of seismic concern has been shown to be expanding through use of the Wellington earthquake catalog, which has revealed a northward progression of earthquake activity reaching the metropolitan area of Wichita. The stress orientation was also calculated from this earthquake catalog through focal mechanism inversion. The calculated stress orientation was confirmed through comparison to other stress measurements from well data and previous earthquake studies in the region. With this knowledge of the stress orientation, the anisotropy in the basement could be understood. This allowed for the anisotropy measurements to be correlated to pore pressure increases. The increase in pore pressure was monitored through time-lapse shear-wave anisotropy analysis. Since the onset of the observation period in 2010, the orientation of the fast shear wave has rotated 90°, indicating a change associated with critical pore pressure build up. The time delay between fast and slow shear wave arrivals has increased, indicating a corresponding increase in anisotropy induced by pore pressure rise. In-situ near-basement fluid pressure measurements corroborate the continuous pore pressure increase revealed by the shear-wave anisotropy analysis over the earthquake monitoring period. This research is the first to identify a change in pore fluid pressure in the basement using seismological data and it was recently published in the AAAS journal Science Advances (Nolte et al., 2017). The shear-wave splitting analysis is a novel application of the technique, which can be used in other regions to identify an increase in pore pressure. This increasing pore fluid pressure has become more regionally extensive as earthquakes are occurring in southern Kansas, where they previously were absent. These monitoring techniques and analyses provide new insight into mitigating induced seismicity’s impact on society.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.2172/1420310" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1420310" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >https://doi.org/10.2172/1420310</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1420310" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1420310" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/7202319-seismic-reflection-evidence-seismogenic-low-angle-faulting-southeastern-arizona" itemprop="url">Seismic reflection evidence for seismogenic low-angle faulting in southeastern Arizona</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Johnson, R A</span> ; <span class="author">Loy, K L</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Geology; (United States)</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Focal mechanisms for large (M > 6) earthquakes in extensional terranes suggest that seismogenic normal faults have dips that range from {approximately}30{degree} to {approximately}70{degree}. Geologic relations suggest that low-angle faults have accommodated large-scale upper-crustal extension. These disparate observations are often reconciled by arguments that low-angle faults move aseismically or rotate to low angles from initially high angles. Seismic reflection data from the Tucson basin in southeast Arizona image a low-angle normal fault (the Santa Rita fault) that crops out along the trend of late Quaternary fault scarps caused by large-magnitude (M {approximately} 6.7-7.6) earthquakes. Velocity-independent dip analysis from shot records<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> of the Santa Rita fault indicates that it has a true dip of {approximately}20{degree} to a depth of at least 6km. This observation suggests that low-angle extensional faults indeed may be seismogenic and that actual mechanisms for accommodation of upper-crustal extension depend on local conditions of stress and preexisting geologic structure.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0597:SREFSL>2.3.CO;2" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="7202319" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0597:SREFSL>2.3.CO;2</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/6858535-relationship-between-situ-stress-fractures-faults-monterey-formation-santa-maria-basin-california" itemprop="url">Relationship between in-situ stress and fractures and faults in the Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin, California</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Conference</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Finkbeiner, T</span> ; <span class="author">Barton, C A</span> ; <span class="author">Zoback, M D</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - AAPG Bulletin</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Borehole televiewer (BHTV) data from four wells within the on- and offshore Santa Maria Basin were utilized to investigate the relationship between fracture distribution, orientation, and variation with depth and in situ stress. Analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts in each well shows a uniform NE-SW maximum horizontal stress (S[sub Hmax]) orientation with depth. This is consistent with the regional S[sub Hmax] direction throughout the entire seismogenic part of the crust as determined from other wellbore breakout data, NW-SE trends of active fold axes and results of kinematic stress-inversion of earthquake focal plane mechanisms. In marked contrast to the uniform stress<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> field, analysis of fractures indicates that their orientation, dip, and frequency vary considerably within each well and laterally among them. With depth, fractures can be generally divided into distinct subsets on the basis of fracture frequency and predominant strike and dip directions. These subsets correlate with changes of lithology and physical properties indicating that factors such as tectonic history, diagenesis and structural variations may have strongly influenced the initiation and propagation of fractures. Only in the onshore well do steeply-dipping fractures strike parallel to S[sub Hmax] and are interpreted as Mode I extension fractures. In the three offshore wells, the fracture strike is mainly oblique or orthogonal to S[sub Hmax] suggesting that they may be distributed strike-slip or reverse faults. We believe currently active faults in the NE-SW transpressional deformation regime play a crucial role for fluid migration by providing permeability enhanced flow paths. Drill stem tests conducted in two of the offshore wells indicate that formation permeability is greatly enhanced in sections of the well where fractures strike predominantly perpendicular to S[sub Hmax] and dip at moderate to steep angles.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/425539-relationship-between-situ-stress-fractures-faults-monterey-formation-santa-maria-basin-california" itemprop="url">Relationship between in-situ stress and fractures and faults in the Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin, California</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Conference</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Finkbeiner, T</span> ; <span class="author">Barton, C A</span> ; <span class="author">Zoback, M D</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Borehole televiewer (BHTV) data from four wells within the on- and offshore Santa Maria Basin were utilized to investigate the relationship between fracture distribution, orientation, and variation with depth and in situ stress. Analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts in each well shows a uniform NE-SW maximum horizontal stress (S{sub Hmax}) orientation with depth. This is consistent with the regional S{sub Hmax} direction throughout the entire seismogenic part of the crust as determined from other wellbore breakout data, NW-SE trends of active fold axes and results of kinematic stress-inversion of earthquake focal plane mechanisms. In marked contrast to the uniform stress<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> field, analysis of fractures indicates that their orientation, dip, and frequency vary considerably within each well and laterally among them. With depth, fractures can be generally divided into distinct subsets on the basis of fracture frequency and predominant strike and dip directions. These subsets correlate with changes of lithology and physical properties indicating that factors such as tectonic history, diagenesis and structural variations may have strongly influenced the initiation and propagation of fractures. Only in the onshore well do steeply-dipping fractures strike parallel to S{sub Hmax} and are interpreted as Mode I extension fractures. In the three offshore wells, the fracture strike is mainly oblique or orthogonal to S{sub Hmax} suggesting that they may be distributed strike-slip or reverse faults. We believe currently active faults in the NE-SW transpressional deformation regime play a crucial role for fluid migration by providing permeability enhanced flow paths. Drill stem tests conducted in two of the offshore wells indicate that formation permeability is greatly enhanced in sections of the well where fractures strike predominantly perpendicular to S{sub Hmax} and dip at moderate to steep angles.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.210409.1859.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.210409.1859.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.210409.1859.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.210409.1859 --> </html>