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Title: The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Description and Results at High Resolution

Abstract

This study provides an overview of the coupled high-resolution Version 1 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SMv1) and documents the characteristics of a 50-year-long high-resolution control simulation with time-invariant 1950 forcings following the HighResMIP protocol. In terms of global root-mean-squared error metrics, this high-resolution simulation is generally superior to results from the low-resolution configuration of E3SMv1 (due to resolution, tuning changes, and possibly initialization procedure) and compares favorably to models in the CMIP5 ensemble. Ocean and sea ice simulation is particularly improved, due to better resolution of bathymetry, the ability to capture more variability and extremes in winds and currents, and the ability to resolve mesoscale ocean eddies. The largest improvement in this regard is an ice-free Labrador Sea, which is a major problem at low resolution. Interestingly, several features found to improve with resolution in previous studies are insensitive to resolution or even degrade in E3SMv1. Most notable in this regard are warm bias and associated stratocumulus deficiency in eastern subtropical oceans and lack of improvement in El Niño. Another major finding of this study is that resolution increase had negligible impact on climate sensitivity (measured by net feedback determined through uniform +4K prescribed sea surface temperaturemore » increase) and aerosol sensitivity. Cloud response to resolution increase consisted of very minor decrease at all levels. Large-scale patterns of precipitation bias were also relatively unaffected by grid spacing.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [1];  [5]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [4]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [6];  [3]; ORCiD logo [7];  [3]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [1] more »; ORCiD logo [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [11];  [1];  [7]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [7] « less
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  6. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  7. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  8. Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)
  9. Univ. of  Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)
  10. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  11. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Scientific User Facilities Division; USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1581236
Report Number(s):
BNL-212498-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 1942-2466
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; AC02‐06CH11357; AC02‐05CH11231; NA0003525; AC52‐07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 1942-2466
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Caldwell, Peter M., Mametjanov, Azamat, Tang, Qi, Van Roekel, Luke P., Golaz, Jean‐Christophe, Lin, Wuyin, Bader, David C., Keen, Noel D., Feng, Yan, Jacob, Robert, Maltrud, Mathew E., Roberts, Andrew F., Taylor, Mark A., Veneziani, Milena, Wang, Hailong, Wolfe, Jonathan D., Balaguru, Karthik, Cameron‐Smith, Philip, Dong, Lu, Klein, Stephen A., Leung, L. Ruby, Li, Hong‐Yi, Li, Qing, Liu, Xiaohong, Neale, Richard B., Pinheiro, Marielle, Qian, Yun, Ullrich, Paul A., Xie, Shaocheng, Yang, Yang, Zhang, Yuying, Zhang, Kai, and Zhou, Tian. The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Description and Results at High Resolution. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2019MS001870.
Caldwell, Peter M., Mametjanov, Azamat, Tang, Qi, Van Roekel, Luke P., Golaz, Jean‐Christophe, Lin, Wuyin, Bader, David C., Keen, Noel D., Feng, Yan, Jacob, Robert, Maltrud, Mathew E., Roberts, Andrew F., Taylor, Mark A., Veneziani, Milena, Wang, Hailong, Wolfe, Jonathan D., Balaguru, Karthik, Cameron‐Smith, Philip, Dong, Lu, Klein, Stephen A., Leung, L. Ruby, Li, Hong‐Yi, Li, Qing, Liu, Xiaohong, Neale, Richard B., Pinheiro, Marielle, Qian, Yun, Ullrich, Paul A., Xie, Shaocheng, Yang, Yang, Zhang, Yuying, Zhang, Kai, & Zhou, Tian. The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Description and Results at High Resolution. United States. doi:10.1029/2019MS001870.
Caldwell, Peter M., Mametjanov, Azamat, Tang, Qi, Van Roekel, Luke P., Golaz, Jean‐Christophe, Lin, Wuyin, Bader, David C., Keen, Noel D., Feng, Yan, Jacob, Robert, Maltrud, Mathew E., Roberts, Andrew F., Taylor, Mark A., Veneziani, Milena, Wang, Hailong, Wolfe, Jonathan D., Balaguru, Karthik, Cameron‐Smith, Philip, Dong, Lu, Klein, Stephen A., Leung, L. Ruby, Li, Hong‐Yi, Li, Qing, Liu, Xiaohong, Neale, Richard B., Pinheiro, Marielle, Qian, Yun, Ullrich, Paul A., Xie, Shaocheng, Yang, Yang, Zhang, Yuying, Zhang, Kai, and Zhou, Tian. Fri . "The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Description and Results at High Resolution". United States. doi:10.1029/2019MS001870. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1581236.
@article{osti_1581236,
title = {The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Description and Results at High Resolution},
author = {Caldwell, Peter M. and Mametjanov, Azamat and Tang, Qi and Van Roekel, Luke P. and Golaz, Jean‐Christophe and Lin, Wuyin and Bader, David C. and Keen, Noel D. and Feng, Yan and Jacob, Robert and Maltrud, Mathew E. and Roberts, Andrew F. and Taylor, Mark A. and Veneziani, Milena and Wang, Hailong and Wolfe, Jonathan D. and Balaguru, Karthik and Cameron‐Smith, Philip and Dong, Lu and Klein, Stephen A. and Leung, L. Ruby and Li, Hong‐Yi and Li, Qing and Liu, Xiaohong and Neale, Richard B. and Pinheiro, Marielle and Qian, Yun and Ullrich, Paul A. and Xie, Shaocheng and Yang, Yang and Zhang, Yuying and Zhang, Kai and Zhou, Tian},
abstractNote = {This study provides an overview of the coupled high-resolution Version 1 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SMv1) and documents the characteristics of a 50-year-long high-resolution control simulation with time-invariant 1950 forcings following the HighResMIP protocol. In terms of global root-mean-squared error metrics, this high-resolution simulation is generally superior to results from the low-resolution configuration of E3SMv1 (due to resolution, tuning changes, and possibly initialization procedure) and compares favorably to models in the CMIP5 ensemble. Ocean and sea ice simulation is particularly improved, due to better resolution of bathymetry, the ability to capture more variability and extremes in winds and currents, and the ability to resolve mesoscale ocean eddies. The largest improvement in this regard is an ice-free Labrador Sea, which is a major problem at low resolution. Interestingly, several features found to improve with resolution in previous studies are insensitive to resolution or even degrade in E3SMv1. Most notable in this regard are warm bias and associated stratocumulus deficiency in eastern subtropical oceans and lack of improvement in El Niño. Another major finding of this study is that resolution increase had negligible impact on climate sensitivity (measured by net feedback determined through uniform +4K prescribed sea surface temperature increase) and aerosol sensitivity. Cloud response to resolution increase consisted of very minor decrease at all levels. Large-scale patterns of precipitation bias were also relatively unaffected by grid spacing.},
doi = {10.1029/2019MS001870},
journal = {Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems},
number = ,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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Upper Ocean Response to a Hurricane
journal, February 1981


Variability of the Kuroshio Extension Jet, Recirculation Gyre, and Mesoscale Eddies on Decadal Time Scales
journal, November 2005

  • Qiu, Bo; Chen, Shuiming
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 35, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/JPO2807.1

Kuroshio Path Variations South of Japan: Bimodality as a Self-Sustained Internal Oscillation
journal, August 2000


An Overview of the Atmospheric Component of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model
journal, August 2019

  • Rasch, P. J.; Xie, S.; Ma, P. ‐L.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019MS001629

Monitoring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation
journal, September 2011

  • Rayner, Darren; Hirschi, Joël J. -M.; Kanzow, Torsten
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 58, Issue 17-18
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.056

Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century
journal, January 2003


Effects of Convective Momentum Transport on the Atmospheric Circulation in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 3
journal, April 2008


Effects of vertical resolution and nonorographic gravity wave drag on the simulated climate in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5
journal, May 2014

  • Richter, Jadwiga H.; Solomon, Abraham; Bacmeister, Julio T.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013MS000303

Toward resolution-independent dust emissions in global models: Impacts on the seasonal and spatial distribution of dust: RESOLUTION-INDEPENDENT DUST EMISSIONS
journal, June 2013

  • Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.; Pierce, J. R.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 11
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Global-mean radiative feedbacks and forcing in atmosphere-only and coupled atmosphere-ocean climate change experiments
journal, June 2014

  • Ringer, Mark A.; Andrews, Timothy; Webb, Mark J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 11
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A multi-resolution approach to global ocean modeling
journal, September 2013


Simulating transient ice-ocean Ekman transport in the Regional Arctic System Model and Community Earth System Model
journal, January 2015

  • Roberts, Andrew; Craig, Anthony; Maslowski, Wieslaw
  • Annals of Glaciology, Vol. 56, Issue 69
  • DOI: 10.3189/2015AoG69A760

Impact of Resolution on the Tropical Pacific Circulation in a Matrix of Coupled Models
journal, May 2009

  • Roberts, Malcolm J.; Clayton, A.; Demory, M. -E.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2537.1

The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century
journal, November 2015


Northern High-Latitude Heat Budget Decomposition and Transient Warming
journal, January 2013

  • Rugenstein, Maria A. A.; Winton, Michael; Stouffer, Ronald J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 26, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00695.1

MIROC4h^|^mdash;A New High-Resolution Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled General Circulation Model
journal, January 2012

  • T. Sakamoto, Takashi; Komuro, Yoshiki; Nishimura, Teruyuki
  • Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, Vol. 90, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.2012-301

The Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model: description and development
journal, October 2014

  • Satoh, Masaki; Tomita, Hirofumi; Yashiro, Hisashi
  • Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, Vol. 1, Issue 1
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The Resolution Sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere Blocking in Four 25-km Atmospheric Global Circulation Models
journal, January 2017

  • Schiemann, Reinhard; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Shaffrey, Len C.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 30, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0100.1

Practice and philosophy of climate model tuning across six US modeling centers
journal, January 2017

  • Schmidt, Gavin A.; Bader, David; Donner, Leo J.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-3207-2017

Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high‐resolution models in the present climate
journal, December 2014

  • Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014MS000372

A new synoptic scale resolving global climate simulation using the Community Earth System Model
journal, December 2014

  • Small, R. Justin; Bacmeister, Julio; Bailey, David
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014MS000363

Storm track response to ocean fronts in a global high-resolution climate model
journal, November 2013


Decline of Arctic sea ice: Evaluation and weighting of CMIP5 projections: DECLINE OF ARCTIC SEA ICE
journal, January 2014

  • Snape, Thomas J.; Forster, Piers M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020593

PHC: A Global Ocean Hydrography with a High-Quality Arctic Ocean
journal, May 2001


Mechanisms of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation variability simulated by the NEMO model
journal, January 2014


Dreary state of precipitation in global models: MODEL AND OBSERVED PRECIPITATION
journal, December 2010

  • Stephens, Graeme L.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Forbes, Richard
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 115, Issue D24
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An update on Earth's energy balance in light of the latest global observations
journal, September 2012

  • Stephens, Graeme L.; Li, Juilin; Wild, Martin
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 5, Issue 10
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Vertical resolution of baroclinic modes in global ocean models
journal, May 2017


The atmospheric hydrologic cycle in the ACME v0.3 model
journal, July 2017

  • Terai, Christopher R.; Caldwell, Peter M.; Klein, Stephen A.
  • Climate Dynamics, Vol. 50, Issue 9-10
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Scalability of grid- and subbasin-based land surface modeling approaches for hydrologic simulations: Scalability of land surface modeling
journal, March 2014

  • Tesfa, Teklu K.; Ruby Leung, L.; Huang, Maoyi
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, Issue 6
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Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom
journal, January 2006

  • Textor, C.; Schulz, M.; Guibert, S.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 7
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Estimates of Meridional Atmosphere and Ocean Heat Transports
journal, August 2001


The Changing Character of Precipitation
journal, September 2003

  • Trenberth, Kevin E.; Dai, Aiguo; Rasmussen, Roy M.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 84, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-84-9-1205

TempestExtremes: a framework for scale-insensitive pointwise feature tracking on unstructured grids
journal, January 2017


Eddy-induced meridional heat transport in the ocean
journal, January 2008

  • Volkov, Denis L.; Lee, Tong; Fu, Lee-Lueng
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 20
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A trio-interaction theory for Madden–Julian oscillation
journal, December 2016


Different contact angle distributions for heterogeneous ice nucleation in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5
journal, January 2014


The effect of horizontal resolution on simulation quality in the Community Atmospheric Model, CAM5.1
journal, November 2014

  • Wehner, Michael F.; Reed, Kevin A.; Li, Fuyu
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 4
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The effect of horizontal resolution on simulation of very extreme US precipitation events in a global atmosphere model
journal, September 2009


The global energy balance from a surface perspective
journal, November 2012


Are historical records sufficient to constrain ENSO simulations?
journal, January 2009


The Distribution of Cloud Horizontal Sizes
journal, September 2011


Understanding Cloud and Convective Characteristics in Version 1 of the E3SM Atmosphere Model
journal, October 2018

  • Xie, Shaocheng; Lin, Wuyin; Rasch, Philip J.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 10, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001350

Revisiting the Thermocline Depth in the Equatorial Pacific
journal, July 2009


Assessing sensitivities in algorithmic detection of tropical cyclones in climate data: SENSITIVITIES IN ALGORITHMIC TC TRACKING
journal, January 2017

  • Zarzycki, Colin M.; Ullrich, Paul A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071606

Spreading of near-inertial energy in a 1/12° model of the North Atlantic Ocean
journal, January 2007

  • Zhai, Xiaoming; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Eden, Carsten
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 10
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Madden-Julian Oscillation
journal, January 2005


Quantifying the impact of sub-grid surface wind variability on sea salt and dust emissions in CAM5
journal, January 2016

  • Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Chun; Wan, Hui
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-607-2016

Evaluation of Clouds in Version 1 of the E3SM Atmosphere Model With Satellite Simulators
journal, May 2019

  • Zhang, Yuying; Xie, Shaocheng; Lin, Wuyin
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018MS001562