skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Revealing Urban Morphology and Outdoor Comfort through Genetic Algorithm-Driven Urban Block Design in Dry and Hot Regions of China

Abstract

In areas with a dry and hot climate, factors such as strong solar radiation, high temperature, low humidity, dazzling light, and dust storms can tremendously reduce people’s thermal comfort. Therefore, researchers are paying more attention to outdoor thermal comfort in urban environments as part of urban design. This study proposed an automatic workflow to optimize urban spatial forms with the aim of improvement of outdoor thermal comfort conditions, characterized by the universal thermal climate index (UTCI). A city with a dry and hot climate—Kashgar, China—is further selected as an actual case study of an urban block and Rhino & Grasshopper is the platform used to conduct simulation and optimization process with the genetic algorithm. Results showed that in summer, the proposed method can reduce the averaged UTCI from 31.17 to 27.43 °C, a decrease of about 3.74 °C, and reduce mean radiation temperature (MRT) from 43.94 to 41.29 °C, a decrease of about 2.65 °C.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1]
  1. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)
  2. China Overseas Property, Zhengzhou (China)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1581071
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Sustainability (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: Sustainability (Basel); Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 13]; Journal ID: ISSN 2071-1050
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; dry and hot areas; outdoor thermal comfort; urban morphology; urban performance simulation; genetic algorithm-driven

Citation Formats

Xu, Xiaodong, Yin, Chenhuan, Wang, Wei, Xu, Ning, Hong, Tianzhen, and Li, Qi. Revealing Urban Morphology and Outdoor Comfort through Genetic Algorithm-Driven Urban Block Design in Dry and Hot Regions of China. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3390/su11133683.
Xu, Xiaodong, Yin, Chenhuan, Wang, Wei, Xu, Ning, Hong, Tianzhen, & Li, Qi. Revealing Urban Morphology and Outdoor Comfort through Genetic Algorithm-Driven Urban Block Design in Dry and Hot Regions of China. United States. doi:10.3390/su11133683.
Xu, Xiaodong, Yin, Chenhuan, Wang, Wei, Xu, Ning, Hong, Tianzhen, and Li, Qi. Thu . "Revealing Urban Morphology and Outdoor Comfort through Genetic Algorithm-Driven Urban Block Design in Dry and Hot Regions of China". United States. doi:10.3390/su11133683. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1581071.
@article{osti_1581071,
title = {Revealing Urban Morphology and Outdoor Comfort through Genetic Algorithm-Driven Urban Block Design in Dry and Hot Regions of China},
author = {Xu, Xiaodong and Yin, Chenhuan and Wang, Wei and Xu, Ning and Hong, Tianzhen and Li, Qi},
abstractNote = {In areas with a dry and hot climate, factors such as strong solar radiation, high temperature, low humidity, dazzling light, and dust storms can tremendously reduce people’s thermal comfort. Therefore, researchers are paying more attention to outdoor thermal comfort in urban environments as part of urban design. This study proposed an automatic workflow to optimize urban spatial forms with the aim of improvement of outdoor thermal comfort conditions, characterized by the universal thermal climate index (UTCI). A city with a dry and hot climate—Kashgar, China—is further selected as an actual case study of an urban block and Rhino & Grasshopper is the platform used to conduct simulation and optimization process with the genetic algorithm. Results showed that in summer, the proposed method can reduce the averaged UTCI from 31.17 to 27.43 °C, a decrease of about 3.74 °C, and reduce mean radiation temperature (MRT) from 43.94 to 41.29 °C, a decrease of about 2.65 °C.},
doi = {10.3390/su11133683},
journal = {Sustainability (Basel)},
number = [13],
volume = [11],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Estimating the impacts of climate change and urbanization on building performance
journal, June 2008


Performance-driven optimization of urban open space configuration in the cold-winter and hot-summer region of China
journal, March 2019


Urban Morphology Extractor: A spatial tool for characterizing urban morphology
journal, June 2018


Comparing the effects of urban heat island mitigation strategies for Toronto, Canada
journal, February 2016


Enhancement of city breathability with half open spaces in ideal urban street canyons
journal, February 2017


The urban heat island effect and city contiguity
journal, November 2015


Urban climatic map studies: a review
journal, October 2010

  • Ren, Chao; Ng, Edward Yan-yung; Katzschner, Lutz
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 31, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.2237

Effects of urban morphology on anthropogenic heat dispersion in tropical high-density residential areas
journal, March 2019


Characterizing urban heat island in Montreal (Canada)—Effect of urban morphology
journal, December 2015


Urban morphology and landscape structure effect on land surface temperature: Evidence from Shiraz, a semi-arid city
journal, August 2018


A model for mapping the energy consumption of buildings, transport and outdoor lighting of neighbourhoods
journal, June 2016


Optimization method for perforated solar screen design to improve daylighting using orthogonal arrays and climate-based daylight modelling
journal, June 2016

  • Chi, Doris A.; Moreno, David; Esquivias, Paula M.
  • Journal of Building Performance Simulation, Vol. 10, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1080/19401493.2016.1197969

Identifying urban geometric types as energy performance patterns
journal, February 2019


Solar energy and urban morphology: Scenarios for increasing the renewable energy potential of neighbourhoods in London
journal, January 2015


Impact of urban morphology on microclimate and thermal comfort in northern China
journal, October 2017


Analysing urban ventilation in building arrays with the age spectrum and mean age of pollutants
journal, March 2018


Analysis of urban ventilation potential using rule-based modeling
journal, November 2017


Evaluation of the thermal environment in an outdoor pedestrian space
journal, February 1996


Microclimate design for open spaces: Ranking urban design effects on pedestrian thermal comfort in summer
journal, October 2016


The urban weather generator
journal, July 2013

  • Bueno, Bruno; Norford, Leslie; Hidalgo, Julia
  • Journal of Building Performance Simulation, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1080/19401493.2012.718797

Impact of greening on the urban heat island: Seasonal variations and mitigation strategies
journal, September 2018


Surface heat assessment for developed environments: Probabilistic urban temperature modeling
journal, November 2017


Experimental investigation on thermal radiation exchange of horizontal outdoor surfaces
journal, January 2003


Performance-Based Evaluation of Courtyard Design in China’s Cold-Winter Hot-Summer Climate Regions
journal, October 2018

  • Xu, Xiaodong; Luo, Fenlan; Wang, Wei
  • Sustainability, Vol. 10, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.3390/su10113950

A study of the effectiveness of mechanical ventilation systems of a hawker center in Singapore using CFD simulations
journal, June 2006


Effect of Street Design on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in an Urban Street in Singapore
journal, March 2016


Evaluation and improvement of outdoor thermal comfort in urban areas on extreme temperature days: Applications of automatic algorithms
journal, December 2015


Applying urban parametric design optimisation processes to a hot climate: Case study of the UAE
journal, February 2015


An Urban Form Experiment on Urban Heat Island Effect in High Density Area
journal, January 2016


THIS – Tool for Heat Island Simulation: A GIS extension model to calculate urban heat island intensity based on urban geometry
journal, January 2018


Modeling and simulating urban outdoor comfort: Coupling ENVI-Met and TRNSYS by grasshopper
journal, October 2017


Influence of changing trees locations on thermal comfort on street parking lot and footways
journal, April 2017

  • Milošević, Dragan D.; Bajšanski, Ivana V.; Savić, Stevan M.
  • Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 23
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2017.03.011

Building envelope shape design in early stages of the design process: Integrating architectural design systems and energy simulation
journal, July 2013


Optimal theoretical building form to minimize direct solar irradiation
journal, November 2013


Genetic algorithm-based approach for optimizing the energy rating on existing buildings
journal, July 2016

  • Fresco Contreras, Rafael; Moyano, Juan; Rico, Fernando
  • Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 37, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1177/0143624416644484

Building form and environmental performance: archetypes, analysis and an arid climate
journal, January 2003


A holistic approach to energy efficient building forms
journal, September 2010


Design optimization of office building envelope configurations for energy conservation
journal, June 2016


Investigation of PMV Model for Evaluation of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort
journal, January 2017


Outdoor thermal comfort within five different urban forms in the Netherlands
journal, January 2015


An introduction to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)
journal, January 2013

  • Błażejczyk, Krzysztof; Jendritzky, Gerd; Bröde, Peter
  • Geographia Polonica, Vol. 86, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.7163/GPol.2013.1

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Urban climatic map studies: a review
    journal, October 2010

    • Ren, Chao; Ng, Edward Yan-yung; Katzschner, Lutz
    • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 31, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1002/joc.2237

    Performance-driven optimization of urban open space configuration in the cold-winter and hot-summer region of China
    journal, March 2019


    Evaluation of the thermal environment in an outdoor pedestrian space
    journal, February 1996


    Design optimization of office building envelope configurations for energy conservation
    journal, June 2016


    Building envelope shape design in early stages of the design process: Integrating architectural design systems and energy simulation
    journal, July 2013


    A study of the effectiveness of mechanical ventilation systems of a hawker center in Singapore using CFD simulations
    journal, June 2006


    Outdoor thermal comfort within five different urban forms in the Netherlands
    journal, January 2015


    Evaluation and improvement of outdoor thermal comfort in urban areas on extreme temperature days: Applications of automatic algorithms
    journal, December 2015


    Enhancement of city breathability with half open spaces in ideal urban street canyons
    journal, February 2017


    Analysing urban ventilation in building arrays with the age spectrum and mean age of pollutants
    journal, March 2018


    A model for mapping the energy consumption of buildings, transport and outdoor lighting of neighbourhoods
    journal, June 2016


    The urban heat island effect and city contiguity
    journal, November 2015


    Analysis of urban ventilation potential using rule-based modeling
    journal, November 2017


    Surface heat assessment for developed environments: Probabilistic urban temperature modeling
    journal, November 2017


    THIS – Tool for Heat Island Simulation: A GIS extension model to calculate urban heat island intensity based on urban geometry
    journal, January 2018


    Impact of greening on the urban heat island: Seasonal variations and mitigation strategies
    journal, September 2018


    A holistic approach to energy efficient building forms
    journal, September 2010


    Comparing the effects of urban heat island mitigation strategies for Toronto, Canada
    journal, February 2016


    Modeling and simulating urban outdoor comfort: Coupling ENVI-Met and TRNSYS by grasshopper
    journal, October 2017


    Effects of urban morphology on anthropogenic heat dispersion in tropical high-density residential areas
    journal, March 2019


    Identifying urban geometric types as energy performance patterns
    journal, February 2019


    An Urban Form Experiment on Urban Heat Island Effect in High Density Area
    journal, January 2016


    Investigation of PMV Model for Evaluation of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort
    journal, January 2017


    Solar energy and urban morphology: Scenarios for increasing the renewable energy potential of neighbourhoods in London
    journal, January 2015


    Applying urban parametric design optimisation processes to a hot climate: Case study of the UAE
    journal, February 2015


    Characterizing urban heat island in Montreal (Canada)—Effect of urban morphology
    journal, December 2015


    Microclimate design for open spaces: Ranking urban design effects on pedestrian thermal comfort in summer
    journal, October 2016


    Urban morphology and landscape structure effect on land surface temperature: Evidence from Shiraz, a semi-arid city
    journal, August 2018


    Optimal theoretical building form to minimize direct solar irradiation
    journal, November 2013


    Impact of urban morphology on microclimate and thermal comfort in northern China
    journal, October 2017


    Urban Morphology Extractor: A spatial tool for characterizing urban morphology
    journal, June 2018


    Influence of changing trees locations on thermal comfort on street parking lot and footways
    journal, April 2017

    • Milošević, Dragan D.; Bajšanski, Ivana V.; Savić, Stevan M.
    • Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 23
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2017.03.011

    Estimating the impacts of climate change and urbanization on building performance
    journal, June 2008


    The urban weather generator
    journal, July 2013

    • Bueno, Bruno; Norford, Leslie; Hidalgo, Julia
    • Journal of Building Performance Simulation, Vol. 6, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1080/19401493.2012.718797

    Optimization method for perforated solar screen design to improve daylighting using orthogonal arrays and climate-based daylight modelling
    journal, June 2016

    • Chi, Doris A.; Moreno, David; Esquivias, Paula M.
    • Journal of Building Performance Simulation, Vol. 10, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1080/19401493.2016.1197969

    Genetic algorithm-based approach for optimizing the energy rating on existing buildings
    journal, July 2016

    • Fresco Contreras, Rafael; Moyano, Juan; Rico, Fernando
    • Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 37, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1177/0143624416644484

    Performance-Based Evaluation of Courtyard Design in China’s Cold-Winter Hot-Summer Climate Regions
    journal, October 2018

    • Xu, Xiaodong; Luo, Fenlan; Wang, Wei
    • Sustainability, Vol. 10, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.3390/su10113950