skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Emittance preservation through density ramp matching sections in a plasma wakefield accelerator

Abstract

In plasma wakefield acceleration, the witness beam’s emittance needs to be preserved when it propagates through a plasma stage. The plasma includes density ramps at both the entrance and the exit. Using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin solution of a single particle’s motion, analytical expressions for the evolution of the beam emittance and the Twiss parameters in an arbitrary adiabatic plasma profile are provided neglecting the acceleration of the beam inside the plasma. It is shown that the beam emittance can be preserved under the matching condition even when the beam has an initial energy spread. It is also shown that the emittance growth for an unmatched beam is minimized when it is focused to the same vacuum plane for a matched beam. The emittance evolution from 3D QuickPIC simulation results agree well with the theoretical results. In the some of the proposed experiments on nearly completed FACET II facility, the matching condition may not be perfectly satisfied and the wake may not be perfectly symmetric. It is shown that for a given set of beam parameters that are consistent with FACET II capabilities, even when the assumptions of the theory are not satisfied, the emittance growth can still be minimized by choosingmore » the optimal focal plane. Last, another issue that may cause emittance growth in realistic plasmas is also examined. When using a lithium plasma source in FACET II experiments a helium buffer gas is used. The plasma is formed from field ionization which can lead to a nonlinear focusing force when there are nonuniform helium ions due to its high ionization potential. For an initial beam emittance of 20 μ m , the helium ionization is found to be small and the witness beam’s emittance can be preserved.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1581045
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1605017; OSTI ID: 1737402
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0010064; AC02-76SF00515; 1806046; 644405
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review Accelerators and Beams Journal Volume: 23 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; Plasma acceleration; new acceleration techniques

Citation Formats

Zhao, Yujian, An, Weiming, Xu, Xinlu, Li, Fei, Hildebrand, Lance, Hogan, Mark J., Yakimenko, Vitaly, Joshi, Chan, and Mori, Warren B. Emittance preservation through density ramp matching sections in a plasma wakefield accelerator. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.23.011302.
Zhao, Yujian, An, Weiming, Xu, Xinlu, Li, Fei, Hildebrand, Lance, Hogan, Mark J., Yakimenko, Vitaly, Joshi, Chan, & Mori, Warren B. Emittance preservation through density ramp matching sections in a plasma wakefield accelerator. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.23.011302.
Zhao, Yujian, An, Weiming, Xu, Xinlu, Li, Fei, Hildebrand, Lance, Hogan, Mark J., Yakimenko, Vitaly, Joshi, Chan, and Mori, Warren B. Fri . "Emittance preservation through density ramp matching sections in a plasma wakefield accelerator". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.23.011302.
@article{osti_1581045,
title = {Emittance preservation through density ramp matching sections in a plasma wakefield accelerator},
author = {Zhao, Yujian and An, Weiming and Xu, Xinlu and Li, Fei and Hildebrand, Lance and Hogan, Mark J. and Yakimenko, Vitaly and Joshi, Chan and Mori, Warren B.},
abstractNote = {In plasma wakefield acceleration, the witness beam’s emittance needs to be preserved when it propagates through a plasma stage. The plasma includes density ramps at both the entrance and the exit. Using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin solution of a single particle’s motion, analytical expressions for the evolution of the beam emittance and the Twiss parameters in an arbitrary adiabatic plasma profile are provided neglecting the acceleration of the beam inside the plasma. It is shown that the beam emittance can be preserved under the matching condition even when the beam has an initial energy spread. It is also shown that the emittance growth for an unmatched beam is minimized when it is focused to the same vacuum plane for a matched beam. The emittance evolution from 3D QuickPIC simulation results agree well with the theoretical results. In the some of the proposed experiments on nearly completed FACET II facility, the matching condition may not be perfectly satisfied and the wake may not be perfectly symmetric. It is shown that for a given set of beam parameters that are consistent with FACET II capabilities, even when the assumptions of the theory are not satisfied, the emittance growth can still be minimized by choosing the optimal focal plane. Last, another issue that may cause emittance growth in realistic plasmas is also examined. When using a lithium plasma source in FACET II experiments a helium buffer gas is used. The plasma is formed from field ionization which can lead to a nonlinear focusing force when there are nonuniform helium ions due to its high ionization potential. For an initial beam emittance of 20 μ m , the helium ionization is found to be small and the witness beam’s emittance can be preserved.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.23.011302},
journal = {Physical Review Accelerators and Beams},
number = 1,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.23.011302

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles
journal, March 2016


Energy doubling of 42 GeV electrons in a metre-scale plasma wakefield accelerator
journal, February 2007

  • Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Christopher E.; Decker, Franz-Josef
  • Nature, Vol. 445, Issue 7129
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05538

QUICKPIC: A highly efficient particle-in-cell code for modeling wakefield acceleration in plasmas
journal, September 2006


Transverse beam dynamics in a plasma density ramp
journal, April 2019


Intrinsic normalized emittance growth in laser-driven electron accelerators
journal, January 2013

  • Migliorati, M.; Bacci, A.; Benedetti, C.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 16, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.16.011302

High-efficiency acceleration of an electron beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator
journal, November 2014


Introduction to wakefields and wake potentials
conference, January 1989

  • Wilson, P. B.
  • PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.38045

An improved iteration loop for the three dimensional quasi-static particle-in-cell algorithm: QuickPIC
journal, October 2013


Nonlinear Theory for Relativistic Plasma Wakefields in the Blowout Regime
journal, April 2006


Transverse emittance growth in staged laser-wakefield acceleration
journal, November 2012

  • Mehrling, T.; Grebenyuk, J.; Tsung, F. S.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 15, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.111303

Analytical model for the uncorrelated emittance evolution of externally injected beams in plasma-based accelerators
journal, November 2018

  • Aschikhin, Alexander; Mehrling, Timon Johannes; Martinez de la Ossa, Alberto
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 909
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2018.02.065

Adiabatic matching section for plasma accelerated beams
journal, May 2014


Some Considerations Concerning the Transverse Deflection of Charged Particles in Radio‐Frequency Fields
journal, November 1956

  • Panofsky, W. K. H.; Wenzel, W. A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 27, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1715427

Mitigation Techniques for Witness Beam Hosing in Plasma - Based Acceleration
conference, August 2018

  • Hildebrand, L.; An, W.; Xu, X. L.
  • 2018 IEEE Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (AAC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/AAC.2018.8659396

Particle-in-cell simulations of tunneling ionization effects in plasma-based accelerators
journal, May 2003

  • Bruhwiler, David L.; Dimitrov, D. A.; Cary, John R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 10, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1566027

Laser-driven electron beamlines generated by coupling laser-plasma sources with conventional transport systems
journal, August 2012

  • Antici, P.; Bacci, A.; Benedetti, C.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 112, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4740456

Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET II
journal, January 2018


Emittance conservation by tailored focusing profiles in a plasma accelerator
journal, April 2015

  • Dornmair, I.; Floettmann, K.; Maier, A. R.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 18, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.041302

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Matching small β functions using centroid jitter and two beam position monitors
    journal, May 2020