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Title: Evidence for Late-stage Eruptive Mass Loss in the Progenitor to SN2018gep, a Broad-lined Ic Supernova: Pre-explosion Emission and a Rapidly Rising Luminous Transient

Abstract

We present detailed observations of ZTF18abukavn (SN2018gep), discovered in high-cadence data from the Zwicky Transient Facility as a rapidly rising (1.4 ± 0.1 mag hr -1) and luminous (M g,peak = -20 mag) transient. It is spectroscopically classified as a broad-lined stripped-envelope supernova (Ic-BL SN). The high peak luminosity (L bol ≳ 3 × 10 44 erg s -1), the short rise time (t rise = 3 days in g band), and the blue colors at peak (g-r ~ -0.4) all resemble the high-redshift Ic-BL iPTF16asu, as well as several other unclassified fast transients. The early discovery of SN2018gep (within an hour of shock breakout) enabled an intensive spectroscopic campaign, including the highest-temperature (T eff ≳ 40,000 K) spectra of a stripped-envelope SN. A retrospective search revealed luminous (Mg ~ Mr ≈ mag) emission in the days to weeks before explosion, the first definitive detection of precursor emission for a Ic-BL. We find a limit on the isotropic gamma-ray energy release E γ,iso < 4.9 × 10 48 erg, a limit on X-ray emission L X < 10 40 erg s -1, and a limit on radio emission νL ν ≲ 10 37 erg s -1. Taken together, we findmore » that the early (< 10 days) data are best explained by shock breakout in a massive shell of dense circumstellar material (0.02 M ) at large radii (3 × 10 14 cm) that was ejected in eruptive pre-explosion mass-loss episodes. The late-time (> 10 days) light curve requires an additional energy source, which could be the radioactive decay of Ni-56.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [1];  [5]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [1];  [13];  [1];  [9] more »; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [14];  [14];  [16];  [17]; ORCiD logo [1];  [18]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [19]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [20]; ORCiD logo [21]; ORCiD logo [22]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [7];  [23];  [20];  [24];  [16];  [20]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [2];  [25];  [5];  [1]; ORCiD logo [24]; ORCiD logo [1];  [24] « less
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics
  2. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Liverpool John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom). Astrophysics Research Inst.
  5. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre
  6. Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)
  7. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). DIRAC Inst.
  8. Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands)
  9. Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
  10. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  11. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Space-Science Inst.
  12. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  13. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Caltech Optical Observatories
  14. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  15. Univ. Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL (United States). Science and Technology Inst.
  16. Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics
  17. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  18. Univ. College London, Surrey (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Lab.
  19. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics
  20. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Infrared Processing & Analysis Center (IPAC)
  21. National Central Univ., Taoyuan City (Taiwan). Graduate Inst. of Astronomy
  22. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  23. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  24. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics
  25. Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Science Foundation (NSF); European Union (EU); German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC)
OSTI Identifier:
1580974
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231; DGE1144469; AST-1440341; 1106171; 1545949; 104-2923-M-008-004-MY5; 647/18; GBMF5076]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 887; Journal Issue: 2]; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; methods: observational; shock waves; stars: mass-loss; supernovae: individual; surveys

Citation Formats

Ho, Anna Y. Q., Goldstein, Daniel A., Schulze, Steve, Khatami, David K., Perley, Daniel A., Ergon, Mattias, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Corsi, Alessandra, Andreoni, Igor, Barbarino, Cristina, Bellm, Eric C., Blagorodnova, Nadia, Bright, Joe S., Burns, E., Cenko, S. Bradley, Cunningham, Virginia, De, Kishalay, Dekany, Richard, Dugas, Alison, Fender, Rob P., Fransson, Claes, Fremling, Christoffer, Goldstein, Adam, Graham, Matthew J., Hale, David, Horesh, Assaf, Hung, Tiara, Kasliwal, Mansi M., M. Kuin, N. Paul, Kulkarni, S. R., Kupfer, Thomas, Lunnan, Ragnhild, Masci, Frank J., Ngeow, Chow-Choong, Nugent, Peter E., Ofek, Eran O., Patterson, Maria T., Petitpas, Glen, Rusholme, Ben, Sai, Hanna, Sfaradi, Itai, Shupe, David L., Sollerman, Jesper, Soumagnac, Maayane T., Tachibana, Yutaro, Taddia, Francesco, Walters, Richard, Wang, Xiaofeng, Yao, Yuhan, and Zhang, Xinhan. Evidence for Late-stage Eruptive Mass Loss in the Progenitor to SN2018gep, a Broad-lined Ic Supernova: Pre-explosion Emission and a Rapidly Rising Luminous Transient. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab55ec.
Ho, Anna Y. Q., Goldstein, Daniel A., Schulze, Steve, Khatami, David K., Perley, Daniel A., Ergon, Mattias, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Corsi, Alessandra, Andreoni, Igor, Barbarino, Cristina, Bellm, Eric C., Blagorodnova, Nadia, Bright, Joe S., Burns, E., Cenko, S. Bradley, Cunningham, Virginia, De, Kishalay, Dekany, Richard, Dugas, Alison, Fender, Rob P., Fransson, Claes, Fremling, Christoffer, Goldstein, Adam, Graham, Matthew J., Hale, David, Horesh, Assaf, Hung, Tiara, Kasliwal, Mansi M., M. Kuin, N. Paul, Kulkarni, S. R., Kupfer, Thomas, Lunnan, Ragnhild, Masci, Frank J., Ngeow, Chow-Choong, Nugent, Peter E., Ofek, Eran O., Patterson, Maria T., Petitpas, Glen, Rusholme, Ben, Sai, Hanna, Sfaradi, Itai, Shupe, David L., Sollerman, Jesper, Soumagnac, Maayane T., Tachibana, Yutaro, Taddia, Francesco, Walters, Richard, Wang, Xiaofeng, Yao, Yuhan, & Zhang, Xinhan. Evidence for Late-stage Eruptive Mass Loss in the Progenitor to SN2018gep, a Broad-lined Ic Supernova: Pre-explosion Emission and a Rapidly Rising Luminous Transient. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab55ec.
Ho, Anna Y. Q., Goldstein, Daniel A., Schulze, Steve, Khatami, David K., Perley, Daniel A., Ergon, Mattias, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Corsi, Alessandra, Andreoni, Igor, Barbarino, Cristina, Bellm, Eric C., Blagorodnova, Nadia, Bright, Joe S., Burns, E., Cenko, S. Bradley, Cunningham, Virginia, De, Kishalay, Dekany, Richard, Dugas, Alison, Fender, Rob P., Fransson, Claes, Fremling, Christoffer, Goldstein, Adam, Graham, Matthew J., Hale, David, Horesh, Assaf, Hung, Tiara, Kasliwal, Mansi M., M. Kuin, N. Paul, Kulkarni, S. R., Kupfer, Thomas, Lunnan, Ragnhild, Masci, Frank J., Ngeow, Chow-Choong, Nugent, Peter E., Ofek, Eran O., Patterson, Maria T., Petitpas, Glen, Rusholme, Ben, Sai, Hanna, Sfaradi, Itai, Shupe, David L., Sollerman, Jesper, Soumagnac, Maayane T., Tachibana, Yutaro, Taddia, Francesco, Walters, Richard, Wang, Xiaofeng, Yao, Yuhan, and Zhang, Xinhan. Wed . "Evidence for Late-stage Eruptive Mass Loss in the Progenitor to SN2018gep, a Broad-lined Ic Supernova: Pre-explosion Emission and a Rapidly Rising Luminous Transient". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab55ec.
@article{osti_1580974,
title = {Evidence for Late-stage Eruptive Mass Loss in the Progenitor to SN2018gep, a Broad-lined Ic Supernova: Pre-explosion Emission and a Rapidly Rising Luminous Transient},
author = {Ho, Anna Y. Q. and Goldstein, Daniel A. and Schulze, Steve and Khatami, David K. and Perley, Daniel A. and Ergon, Mattias and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Corsi, Alessandra and Andreoni, Igor and Barbarino, Cristina and Bellm, Eric C. and Blagorodnova, Nadia and Bright, Joe S. and Burns, E. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Cunningham, Virginia and De, Kishalay and Dekany, Richard and Dugas, Alison and Fender, Rob P. and Fransson, Claes and Fremling, Christoffer and Goldstein, Adam and Graham, Matthew J. and Hale, David and Horesh, Assaf and Hung, Tiara and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and M. Kuin, N. Paul and Kulkarni, S. R. and Kupfer, Thomas and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Masci, Frank J. and Ngeow, Chow-Choong and Nugent, Peter E. and Ofek, Eran O. and Patterson, Maria T. and Petitpas, Glen and Rusholme, Ben and Sai, Hanna and Sfaradi, Itai and Shupe, David L. and Sollerman, Jesper and Soumagnac, Maayane T. and Tachibana, Yutaro and Taddia, Francesco and Walters, Richard and Wang, Xiaofeng and Yao, Yuhan and Zhang, Xinhan},
abstractNote = {We present detailed observations of ZTF18abukavn (SN2018gep), discovered in high-cadence data from the Zwicky Transient Facility as a rapidly rising (1.4 ± 0.1 mag hr-1) and luminous (Mg,peak = -20 mag) transient. It is spectroscopically classified as a broad-lined stripped-envelope supernova (Ic-BL SN). The high peak luminosity (Lbol ≳ 3 × 1044 erg s-1), the short rise time (trise = 3 days in g band), and the blue colors at peak (g-r ~ -0.4) all resemble the high-redshift Ic-BL iPTF16asu, as well as several other unclassified fast transients. The early discovery of SN2018gep (within an hour of shock breakout) enabled an intensive spectroscopic campaign, including the highest-temperature (Teff ≳ 40,000 K) spectra of a stripped-envelope SN. A retrospective search revealed luminous (Mg ~ Mr ≈ mag) emission in the days to weeks before explosion, the first definitive detection of precursor emission for a Ic-BL. We find a limit on the isotropic gamma-ray energy release Eγ,iso < 4.9 × 1048 erg, a limit on X-ray emission LX < 1040 erg s-1, and a limit on radio emission νLν ≲ 1037 erg s-1. Taken together, we find that the early (< 10 days) data are best explained by shock breakout in a massive shell of dense circumstellar material (0.02 M⊙) at large radii (3 × 1014 cm) that was ejected in eruptive pre-explosion mass-loss episodes. The late-time (> 10 days) light curve requires an additional energy source, which could be the radioactive decay of Ni-56.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab55ec},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = [2],
volume = [887],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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