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Title: Properly Lumped Lithium-ion Battery Models: A Tanks-in-Series Approach

Abstract

This article introduces a lumped electrochemical model for lithium-ion batteries. The governing equations of the standard 'pseudo 2-dimensional' (p2D) model are volume-averaged over each region in a cathode-separator-anode representation. This gives a set of equations in which the evolution of each averaged variable is expressed as an overall balance containing internal source terms and interfacial fluxes. These quantities are approximated to ensure mass and charge conservation. The averaged porous domains may thus be regarded as three 'tanks-in-series'. Predictions from the resulting equation system are compared against the p2D model and simpler Single Particle Model (SPM). The Tanks-in-Series model achieves substantial agreement with the p2D model for cell voltage, with error metrics of <15 mV even at rates beyond the predictive capability of SPM. Predictions of electrochemical variables are examined to study the effect of approximations on cell-level predictions. The Tanks-in-Series model is a substantially smaller equation system, enabling solution times of a few milliseconds and indicating potential for deployment in real-time applications. The methodology discussed herein is generalizable to any model based on conservation laws, enabling the generation of reduced-order models for different battery types. This can potentially facilitate Battery Management Systems for various current and next-generation batteries.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
  3. BattGenie Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)
  4. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1580777
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1580780; OSTI ID: 1593686
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-75855
Journal ID: ISSN 1945-7111
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; AR0000275
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of The Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 167; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1945-7111
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; battery management systems; lithium-ion batteries

Citation Formats

Subramaniam, Akshay, Kolluri, Suryanarayana, Parke, Caitlin D., Pathak, Manan, Santhanagopalan, Shriram, and Subramanian, Venkat R. Properly Lumped Lithium-ion Battery Models: A Tanks-in-Series Approach. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1149/2.0342001JES.
Subramaniam, Akshay, Kolluri, Suryanarayana, Parke, Caitlin D., Pathak, Manan, Santhanagopalan, Shriram, & Subramanian, Venkat R. Properly Lumped Lithium-ion Battery Models: A Tanks-in-Series Approach. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0342001JES.
Subramaniam, Akshay, Kolluri, Suryanarayana, Parke, Caitlin D., Pathak, Manan, Santhanagopalan, Shriram, and Subramanian, Venkat R. Thu . "Properly Lumped Lithium-ion Battery Models: A Tanks-in-Series Approach". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0342001JES.
@article{osti_1580777,
title = {Properly Lumped Lithium-ion Battery Models: A Tanks-in-Series Approach},
author = {Subramaniam, Akshay and Kolluri, Suryanarayana and Parke, Caitlin D. and Pathak, Manan and Santhanagopalan, Shriram and Subramanian, Venkat R.},
abstractNote = {This article introduces a lumped electrochemical model for lithium-ion batteries. The governing equations of the standard 'pseudo 2-dimensional' (p2D) model are volume-averaged over each region in a cathode-separator-anode representation. This gives a set of equations in which the evolution of each averaged variable is expressed as an overall balance containing internal source terms and interfacial fluxes. These quantities are approximated to ensure mass and charge conservation. The averaged porous domains may thus be regarded as three 'tanks-in-series'. Predictions from the resulting equation system are compared against the p2D model and simpler Single Particle Model (SPM). The Tanks-in-Series model achieves substantial agreement with the p2D model for cell voltage, with error metrics of <15 mV even at rates beyond the predictive capability of SPM. Predictions of electrochemical variables are examined to study the effect of approximations on cell-level predictions. The Tanks-in-Series model is a substantially smaller equation system, enabling solution times of a few milliseconds and indicating potential for deployment in real-time applications. The methodology discussed herein is generalizable to any model based on conservation laws, enabling the generation of reduced-order models for different battery types. This can potentially facilitate Battery Management Systems for various current and next-generation batteries.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0342001JES},
journal = {Journal of The Electrochemical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 167,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
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DOI: 10.1149/2.0342001JES

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