skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on November 26, 2020

Title: Mapping the dark matter halo of early-type galaxy NGC 2974 through orbit-based models with combined stellar and cold gas kinematics

Abstract

ABSTRACT We present an orbit-based method of combining stellar and cold gas kinematics to constrain the dark matter profile of early-type galaxies. We apply this method to early-type galaxy NGC 2974, using Pan-STARRS imaging and SAURON stellar kinematics to model the stellar orbits, and introducing H i kinematics from VLA observation as a tracer of the gravitational potential. The introduction of the cold gas kinematics shows a significant effect on the confidence limits of especially the dark halo properties: we exclude more than $$95{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$$ of models within the 1σ confidence level of Schwarzschild modelling with only stellar kinematics, and reduce the relative uncertainty of the dark matter fraction significantly to $$10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$$ within 5Re. Adopting a generalized Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) dark matter profile, we measure a shallow cuspy inner slope of $$0.6^{+0.2}_{-0.3}$$ when including the cold gas kinematics in our model. We cannot constrain the inner slope with the stellar kinematics alone.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5]
  1. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
  2. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, China
  3. Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, Vienna 1180, Austria, European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 2, Garching bei Munchen D-85748, Germany
  4. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
  5. Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, Dwingeloo NL-7990 AA, the Netherlands, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, Groningen NL-9700 AV, the Netherlands
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1579588
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 491 Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Yang, Meng, Zhu, Ling, Weijmans, Anne-Marie, van de Ven, Glenn, Boardman, Nicholas, Morganti, Raffaella, and Oosterloo, Tom. Mapping the dark matter halo of early-type galaxy NGC 2974 through orbit-based models with combined stellar and cold gas kinematics. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz3293.
Yang, Meng, Zhu, Ling, Weijmans, Anne-Marie, van de Ven, Glenn, Boardman, Nicholas, Morganti, Raffaella, & Oosterloo, Tom. Mapping the dark matter halo of early-type galaxy NGC 2974 through orbit-based models with combined stellar and cold gas kinematics. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz3293.
Yang, Meng, Zhu, Ling, Weijmans, Anne-Marie, van de Ven, Glenn, Boardman, Nicholas, Morganti, Raffaella, and Oosterloo, Tom. Tue . "Mapping the dark matter halo of early-type galaxy NGC 2974 through orbit-based models with combined stellar and cold gas kinematics". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz3293.
@article{osti_1579588,
title = {Mapping the dark matter halo of early-type galaxy NGC 2974 through orbit-based models with combined stellar and cold gas kinematics},
author = {Yang, Meng and Zhu, Ling and Weijmans, Anne-Marie and van de Ven, Glenn and Boardman, Nicholas and Morganti, Raffaella and Oosterloo, Tom},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT We present an orbit-based method of combining stellar and cold gas kinematics to constrain the dark matter profile of early-type galaxies. We apply this method to early-type galaxy NGC 2974, using Pan-STARRS imaging and SAURON stellar kinematics to model the stellar orbits, and introducing H i kinematics from VLA observation as a tracer of the gravitational potential. The introduction of the cold gas kinematics shows a significant effect on the confidence limits of especially the dark halo properties: we exclude more than $95{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of models within the 1σ confidence level of Schwarzschild modelling with only stellar kinematics, and reduce the relative uncertainty of the dark matter fraction significantly to $10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ within 5Re. Adopting a generalized Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) dark matter profile, we measure a shallow cuspy inner slope of $0.6^{+0.2}_{-0.3}$ when including the cold gas kinematics in our model. We cannot constrain the inner slope with the stellar kinematics alone.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz3293},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 3,
volume = 491,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on November 26, 2020
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Dynamics of the Globular Cluster System Associated with M49 (NGC 4472): Cluster Orbital Properties and the Distribution of Dark Matter
journal, July 2003

  • Cote, Patrick; McLaughlin, Dean E.; Cohen, Judith G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 591, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/375488

The SLUGGS survey: dark matter fractions at large radii and assembly epochs of early-type galaxies from globular cluster kinematics
journal, April 2017

  • Alabi, Adebusola B.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 468, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx678

The Structure of Cold Dark Matter Halos
journal, May 1996

  • Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 462
  • DOI: 10.1086/177173

A discrete chemo-dynamical model of the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor: mass profile, velocity anisotropy and internal rotation
journal, August 2016

  • Zhu, Ling; van de Ven, Glenn; Watkins, Laura L.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 463, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2081

On the Average Density Profile of Dark-Matter Halos in the Inner Regions of Massive Early-Type Galaxies
journal, February 2012


The Motions of Stars in a Kapteyn-Universe
journal, January 1922

  • Jeans, J. H.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 82, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/82.3.122

SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies
journal, March 2017


The evolving slope of the stellar mass function at 0.6 ≤  z < 4.5 from deep WFC3 data
journal, January 2012


nmagic: a fast parallel implementation of a χ 2 -made-to-measure algorithm for modelling observational data
journal, March 2007

  • De Lorenzi, Flavio; Debattista, Victor P.; Gerhard, Ortwin
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 376, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11434.x

CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey: I. Survey presentation⋆
journal, January 2012


Extended, regular $\ion{H}{i}$ structures around early-type galaxies
journal, January 2007


Triaxial orbit based galaxy models with an application to the (apparent) decoupled core galaxy NGC 4365
journal, April 2008

  • van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Verolme, E. K.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 385, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.12874.x

Dark matter content and internal dynamics of NGC 4697: nmagic particle models from slit data and planetary nebula velocities
journal, April 2008

  • De Lorenzi, Flavio; Gerhard, Ortwin; Saglia, Roberto P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 385, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.12905.x

Dynamical modelling of stars and gas in NGC 2974: determination of mass-to-light ratio, inclination and orbital structure using the Schwarzschild method
journal, March 2005


A numerical model for a triaxial stellar system in dynamical equilibrium
journal, August 1979

  • Schwarzschild, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 232
  • DOI: 10.1086/157282

Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae
journal, June 2007

  • Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Coccato, L.
  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Vol. 3, Issue S244
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1743921307014111

The SLUGGS Survey: The Inner Dark Matter Density Slope of the Massive Elliptical Galaxy NGC 1407
journal, August 2018

  • Wasserman, Asher; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 863, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aad236

Morphology and kinematics of orbital components in CALIFA galaxies across the Hubble sequence
journal, June 2018

  • Zhu, Ling; van de Ven, Glenn; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1521

The SAURON project - I. The panoramic integral-field spectrograph
journal, September 2001


Made-to-measure N-body systems
journal, September 1996

  • Syer, D.; Tremaine, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 282, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/282.1.223

Distribution of dark matter in the spiral galaxy NGC 3198
journal, August 1985

  • van Albada, T. S.; Bahcall, J. N.; Begeman, K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 295
  • DOI: 10.1086/163375

Observations and dynamical modelling of the E4 galaxy NGC 2974: evidence for an embedded stellar disc
journal, September 1994

  • Cinzano, P.; van der Marel, R. P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 270, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/270.2.325

Using nmagic to probe the dark matter halo and orbital structure of the X-ray bright, massive elliptical galaxy, NGC 4649: The massive elliptical galaxy, NGC 4649
journal, May 2011


The globular cluster kinematics and galaxy dark matter content of NGC 3923
journal, February 2012


Elliptical galaxies with rapidly decreasing velocity dispersion profiles: nmagic models and dark halo parameter estimates for NGC 4494
journal, April 2013

  • Morganti, Lucia; Gerhard, Ortwin; Coccato, Lodovico
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 431, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt442

The ATLAS3D project – XV. Benchmark for early-type galaxies scaling relations from 260 dynamical models: mass-to-light ratio, dark matter, Fundamental Plane and Mass Plane
journal, May 2013

  • Cappellari, Michele; Scott, Nicholas; Alatalo, Katherine
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 432, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt562

Analytical models for galactic nuclei
journal, January 1996


The SLUGGS survey: a comparison of total-mass profiles of early-type galaxies from observations and cosmological simulations, to ∼4 effective radii
journal, February 2018

  • Bellstedt, Sabine; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 476, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty456

Evidence against dissipation-less dark matter from observations of galaxy haloes
journal, August 1994


The Slope of the Black Hole Mass versus Velocity Dispersion Correlation
journal, August 2002

  • Tremaine, Scott; Gebhardt, Karl; Bender, Ralf
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 574, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/341002

The ATLAS3D project – XX. Mass–size and mass–σ distributions of early-type galaxies: bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function
journal, May 2013

  • Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 432, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt644

Dynamics of the Globular Cluster System Associated with M87 (NGC 4486). II. Analysis
journal, October 2001

  • Cote, Patrick; McLaughlin, Dean E.; Hanes, David A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 559, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/322347

The Planetary Nebula Spectrograph elliptical galaxy survey: the dark matter in NGC 4494
journal, February 2009


Formation of galaxies and large-scale structure with cold dark matter
journal, October 1984

  • Blumenthal, George R.; Faber, S. M.; Primack, Joel R.
  • Nature, Vol. 311, Issue 5986
  • DOI: 10.1038/311517a0

Photometric Response Functions of the Sloan Digital sky Survey Imager
journal, March 2010


The SLUGGS survey: breaking degeneracies between dark matter, anisotropy and the IMF using globular cluster subpopulations in the giant elliptical NGC 5846
journal, February 2014

  • Napolitano, Nicola R.; Pota, Vincenzo; Romanowsky, Aaron J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 439, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2484

The sl2s Galaxy-Scale lens Sample. v. dark Matter Halos and Stellar imf of Massive Early-Type Galaxies out to Redshift 0.8
journal, February 2015

  • Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 800, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/94

Dark matter contraction and stellar-mass-to-light ratio gradients in massive early-type galaxies
journal, January 2018

  • Oldham, Lindsay J.; Auger, Matthew W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 476, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty065

Recovering the intrinsic shape of early-type galaxies
journal, September 2009


The PN.S Elliptical Galaxy Survey: a standard ΛCDM halo around NGC 4374?★: Dark matter in NGC 4374 with PN.S
journal, November 2010

  • Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Capaccioli, M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 411, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17833.x

The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph: The Sydney-AAO Multi-object IFS
journal, February 2012


The low dark matter content of the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998
journal, May 2016

  • Boardman, Nicholas F.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; van den Bosch, Remco
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 460, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1187

The Luminosity Function and Stellar Evolution.
journal, January 1955

  • Salpeter, Edwin E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 121
  • DOI: 10.1086/145971

OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES AT APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY
journal, December 2014

  • Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Law, David R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 798, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/798/1/7

The ATLAS3D project - XIII. Mass and morphology of H i in early-type galaxies as a function of environment: The ATLAS3D project - XIII. Neutral hydrogen
journal, April 2012


The next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. v. Modeling the Dynamics of m87 with the Made-To-Measure Method
journal, August 2014


The ATLAS3D project - I. A volume-limited sample of 260 nearby early-type galaxies: science goals and selection criteria: The ATLAS3D project - I. The sample
journal, March 2011

  • Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 413, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.18174.x

Hobby-Eberly Telescope Observations of the dark halo in ngc 821
journal, May 2010


Small Scatter and Nearly Isothermal mass Profiles to four Half-Light Radii from Two-Dimensional Stellar Dynamics of Early-Type Galaxies
journal, April 2015

  • Cappellari, Michele; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 804, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/804/1/L21

Galactic Stellar and Substellar Initial Mass Function
journal, July 2003

  • Chabrier, Gilles
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 115, Issue 809
  • DOI: 10.1086/376392

Efficient multi-Gaussian expansion of galaxies
journal, June 2002


Cold collapse and the core catastrophe
journal, December 1999


A discrete chemo-dynamical model of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5846: dark matter fraction, internal rotation, and velocity anisotropy out to six effective radii
journal, August 2016

  • Zhu, Ling; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; van de Ven, Glenn
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 462, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1931

H I observations of the elliptical galaxies NGC 2974 and NGC 5018
journal, July 1988

  • Kim, D. -W.; Jura, M.; Guhathakurta, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 330
  • DOI: 10.1086/166504

The shape of the dark matter halo in the early-type galaxy NGC 2974: The dark matter halo in NGC 2974
journal, January 2008

  • Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Krajnović, Davor; Van De Ven, Glenn
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 383, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12680.x

A HIGHLY CONSISTENT FRAMEWORK FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE STAR-FORMING “MAIN SEQUENCE” FROM z ∼ 0-6
journal, September 2014

  • Speagle, J. S.; Steinhardt, C. L.; Capak, P. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 214, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/214/2/15

The stellar orbit distribution in present-day galaxies inferred from the CALIFA survey
journal, January 2018


Adaptive spatial binning of integral-field spectroscopic data using Voronoi tessellations
journal, June 2003


Systematic trends in total-mass profiles from dynamical models of early-type galaxies
journal, January 2017

  • Poci, Adriano; Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx101

The SAURON project — II. Sample and early results
journal, January 2002


Self-consistent Bulge/Disk/Halo Galaxy Dynamical Modeling Using Integral Field Kinematics
journal, November 2017

  • Taranu, D. S.; Obreschkow, D.; Dubinski, J. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 850, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9221

Parametric Recovery of Line‐of‐Sight Velocity Distributions from Absorption‐Line Spectra of Galaxies via Penalized Likelihood
journal, February 2004

  • Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 116, Issue 816
  • DOI: 10.1086/381875

A Method for Measuring (Slopes of) the mass Profiles of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
journal, November 2011


The Seyfert Population in the Local Universe
journal, October 2003

  • Maia, Marcio A. G.; Machado, Rodolfo S.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 126, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/378360

The H I-Rich Elliptical Galaxy NGC 5266
journal, March 1997

  • Morganti, R.; Sadler, E. M.; Oosterloo, T.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 113
  • DOI: 10.1086/118311

The 2.5 m Telescope of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
journal, April 2006

  • Gunn, James E.; Siegmund, Walter A.; Mannery, Edward J.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 131, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/500975

Orbital decomposition of CALIFA spiral galaxies
journal, September 2017

  • Zhu, Ling; van den Bosch, Remco; van de Ven, Glenn
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 473, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2409

The Kinematic Status and Mass Content of the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy
journal, June 2008

  • Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Tolstoy, E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 681, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/590179

The SAURON project – III. Integral-field absorption-line kinematics of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxies
journal, August 2004

  • Emsellem, Eric; Cappellari, Michele; Peletier, Reynier F.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 352, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07948.x

The evolution of large-scale structure in a universe dominated by cold dark matter
journal, May 1985

  • Davis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 292
  • DOI: 10.1086/163168