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Title: Cosmogenic neutron production at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

Abstract

Neutrons produced in nuclear interactions initiated by cosmic-ray muons present an irreducible background to many rare-event searches, even in detectors located deep underground. Models for the production of these neutrons have been tested against previous experimental data, but the extrapolation to deeper sites is not well understood. Here we report results from an analysis of cosmogenically produced neutrons at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. A specific set of observables are presented, which can be used to benchmark the validity of geant4 physics models. In addition, the cosmogenic neutron yield, in units of 10^-4 cm2/(g μ), is measured to be 7.28±0.09(stat)+1.59-1.12(syst) in pure heavy water and 7.30±0.07(stat)+1.40-1.02(syst) in NaCl-loaded heavy water. These results provide unique insights into this potential background source for experiments at SNOLAB.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
Contributing Org.:
SNO Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1579392
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1582359; OSTI ID: 1593255; OSTI ID: 1604047; OSTI ID: 1615367; OSTI ID: 1631407; OSTI ID: 1658876; OSTI ID: 1658945
Report Number(s):
BNL-213569-2020-JAAM; LA-UR-19-29857; FERMILAB-PUB-19-696-ESH; arXiv:1909.11728
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; 112005
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; SC0012704; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-07CH11359; SC0018987; FG02-97ER41033; FG02-97ER41041
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review D Journal Volume: 100 Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics; Neutrons; Cosmogenic; Neutrino; Particle interactions; Neutrino detectors; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Aharmim, B., Ahmed, S. N., Anthony, A. E., Barros, N., Beier, E. W., Bellerive, A., Beltran, B., Bergevin, M., Biller, S. D., Bonventre, R., Boudjemline, K., Boulay, M. G., Cai, B., Callaghan, E. J., Caravaca, J., Chan, Y. D., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Cleveland, B. T., Cox, G. A., Curley, R., Dai, X., Deng, H., Descamps, F. B., Detwiler, J. A., Doe, P. J., Doucas, G., Drouin, P. -L., Dunford, M., Elliott, S. R., Evans, H. C., Ewan, G. T., Farine, J., Fergani, H., Fleurot, F., Ford, R. J., Formaggio, J. A., Gagnon, N., Gilje, K., Goon, J. TM., Graham, K., Guillian, E., Habib, S., Hahn, R. L., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, E. D., Harvey, P. J., Hazama, R., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hime, A., Howard, C., Huang, M., Jagam, P., Jamieson, B., Jelley, N. A., Jerkins, M., Kéfélian, C., Keeter, K. J., Klein, J. R., Kormos, L. L., Kos, M., Krüger, A., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kutter, T., Kyba, C. C. M., Land, B. J., Lange, R., Law, J., Lawson, I. T., Lesko, K. T., Leslie, J. R., Levine, I., Loach, J. C., MacLellan, R., Majerus, S., Mak, H. B., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., Mastbaum, A., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McGee, S. R., Miller, M. L., Monreal, B., Monroe, J., Nickel, B. G., Noble, A. J., O’Keeffe, H. M., Oblath, N. S., Okada, C. E., Ollerhead, R. W., Orebi Gann, G. D., Oser, S. M., Ott, R. A., Peeters, S. J. M., Poon, A. W. P., Prior, G., Reitzner, S. D., Rielage, K., Robertson, B. C., Robertson, R. G. H., Schwendener, M. H., Secrest, J. A., Seibert, S. R., Simard, O., Sinclair, D., Skensved, P., Sonley, T. J., Stonehill, L. C., Tešić, G., Tolich, N., Tsui, T., Van Berg, R., VanDevender, B. A., Virtue, C. J., Wall, B. L., Waller, D., Wan Chan Tseung, H., Wark, D. L., Wendland, J., West, N., Wilkerson, J. F., Wilson, J. R., Winchester, T., Wright, A., Yeh, M., Zhang, F., Zuber, K., and SNO Collaboration. Cosmogenic neutron production at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.112005.
Aharmim, B., Ahmed, S. N., Anthony, A. E., Barros, N., Beier, E. W., Bellerive, A., Beltran, B., Bergevin, M., Biller, S. D., Bonventre, R., Boudjemline, K., Boulay, M. G., Cai, B., Callaghan, E. J., Caravaca, J., Chan, Y. D., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Cleveland, B. T., Cox, G. A., Curley, R., Dai, X., Deng, H., Descamps, F. B., Detwiler, J. A., Doe, P. J., Doucas, G., Drouin, P. -L., Dunford, M., Elliott, S. R., Evans, H. C., Ewan, G. T., Farine, J., Fergani, H., Fleurot, F., Ford, R. J., Formaggio, J. A., Gagnon, N., Gilje, K., Goon, J. TM., Graham, K., Guillian, E., Habib, S., Hahn, R. L., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, E. D., Harvey, P. J., Hazama, R., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hime, A., Howard, C., Huang, M., Jagam, P., Jamieson, B., Jelley, N. A., Jerkins, M., Kéfélian, C., Keeter, K. J., Klein, J. R., Kormos, L. L., Kos, M., Krüger, A., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kutter, T., Kyba, C. C. M., Land, B. J., Lange, R., Law, J., Lawson, I. T., Lesko, K. T., Leslie, J. R., Levine, I., Loach, J. C., MacLellan, R., Majerus, S., Mak, H. B., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., Mastbaum, A., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McGee, S. R., Miller, M. L., Monreal, B., Monroe, J., Nickel, B. G., Noble, A. J., O’Keeffe, H. M., Oblath, N. S., Okada, C. E., Ollerhead, R. W., Orebi Gann, G. D., Oser, S. M., Ott, R. A., Peeters, S. J. M., Poon, A. W. P., Prior, G., Reitzner, S. D., Rielage, K., Robertson, B. C., Robertson, R. G. H., Schwendener, M. H., Secrest, J. A., Seibert, S. R., Simard, O., Sinclair, D., Skensved, P., Sonley, T. J., Stonehill, L. C., Tešić, G., Tolich, N., Tsui, T., Van Berg, R., VanDevender, B. A., Virtue, C. J., Wall, B. L., Waller, D., Wan Chan Tseung, H., Wark, D. L., Wendland, J., West, N., Wilkerson, J. F., Wilson, J. R., Winchester, T., Wright, A., Yeh, M., Zhang, F., Zuber, K., & SNO Collaboration. Cosmogenic neutron production at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.112005.
Aharmim, B., Ahmed, S. N., Anthony, A. E., Barros, N., Beier, E. W., Bellerive, A., Beltran, B., Bergevin, M., Biller, S. D., Bonventre, R., Boudjemline, K., Boulay, M. G., Cai, B., Callaghan, E. J., Caravaca, J., Chan, Y. D., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Cleveland, B. T., Cox, G. A., Curley, R., Dai, X., Deng, H., Descamps, F. B., Detwiler, J. A., Doe, P. J., Doucas, G., Drouin, P. -L., Dunford, M., Elliott, S. R., Evans, H. C., Ewan, G. T., Farine, J., Fergani, H., Fleurot, F., Ford, R. J., Formaggio, J. A., Gagnon, N., Gilje, K., Goon, J. TM., Graham, K., Guillian, E., Habib, S., Hahn, R. L., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, E. D., Harvey, P. J., Hazama, R., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hime, A., Howard, C., Huang, M., Jagam, P., Jamieson, B., Jelley, N. A., Jerkins, M., Kéfélian, C., Keeter, K. J., Klein, J. R., Kormos, L. L., Kos, M., Krüger, A., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kutter, T., Kyba, C. C. M., Land, B. J., Lange, R., Law, J., Lawson, I. T., Lesko, K. T., Leslie, J. R., Levine, I., Loach, J. C., MacLellan, R., Majerus, S., Mak, H. B., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., Mastbaum, A., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McGee, S. R., Miller, M. L., Monreal, B., Monroe, J., Nickel, B. G., Noble, A. J., O’Keeffe, H. M., Oblath, N. S., Okada, C. E., Ollerhead, R. W., Orebi Gann, G. D., Oser, S. M., Ott, R. A., Peeters, S. J. M., Poon, A. W. P., Prior, G., Reitzner, S. D., Rielage, K., Robertson, B. C., Robertson, R. G. H., Schwendener, M. H., Secrest, J. A., Seibert, S. R., Simard, O., Sinclair, D., Skensved, P., Sonley, T. J., Stonehill, L. C., Tešić, G., Tolich, N., Tsui, T., Van Berg, R., VanDevender, B. A., Virtue, C. J., Wall, B. L., Waller, D., Wan Chan Tseung, H., Wark, D. L., Wendland, J., West, N., Wilkerson, J. F., Wilson, J. R., Winchester, T., Wright, A., Yeh, M., Zhang, F., Zuber, K., and SNO Collaboration. Thu . "Cosmogenic neutron production at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.112005.
@article{osti_1579392,
title = {Cosmogenic neutron production at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory},
author = {Aharmim, B. and Ahmed, S. N. and Anthony, A. E. and Barros, N. and Beier, E. W. and Bellerive, A. and Beltran, B. and Bergevin, M. and Biller, S. D. and Bonventre, R. and Boudjemline, K. and Boulay, M. G. and Cai, B. and Callaghan, E. J. and Caravaca, J. and Chan, Y. D. and Chauhan, D. and Chen, M. and Cleveland, B. T. and Cox, G. A. and Curley, R. and Dai, X. and Deng, H. and Descamps, F. B. and Detwiler, J. A. and Doe, P. J. and Doucas, G. and Drouin, P. -L. and Dunford, M. and Elliott, S. R. and Evans, H. C. and Ewan, G. T. and Farine, J. and Fergani, H. and Fleurot, F. and Ford, R. J. and Formaggio, J. A. and Gagnon, N. and Gilje, K. and Goon, J. TM. and Graham, K. and Guillian, E. and Habib, S. and Hahn, R. L. and Hallin, A. L. and Hallman, E. D. and Harvey, P. J. and Hazama, R. and Heintzelman, W. J. and Heise, J. and Helmer, R. L. and Hime, A. and Howard, C. and Huang, M. and Jagam, P. and Jamieson, B. and Jelley, N. A. and Jerkins, M. and Kéfélian, C. and Keeter, K. J. and Klein, J. R. and Kormos, L. L. and Kos, M. and Krüger, A. and Kraus, C. and Krauss, C. B. and Kutter, T. and Kyba, C. C. M. and Land, B. J. and Lange, R. and Law, J. and Lawson, I. T. and Lesko, K. T. and Leslie, J. R. and Levine, I. and Loach, J. C. and MacLellan, R. and Majerus, S. and Mak, H. B. and Maneira, J. and Martin, R. D. and Mastbaum, A. and McCauley, N. and McDonald, A. B. and McGee, S. R. and Miller, M. L. and Monreal, B. and Monroe, J. and Nickel, B. G. and Noble, A. J. and O’Keeffe, H. M. and Oblath, N. S. and Okada, C. E. and Ollerhead, R. W. and Orebi Gann, G. D. and Oser, S. M. and Ott, R. A. and Peeters, S. J. M. and Poon, A. W. P. and Prior, G. and Reitzner, S. D. and Rielage, K. and Robertson, B. C. and Robertson, R. G. H. and Schwendener, M. H. and Secrest, J. A. and Seibert, S. R. and Simard, O. and Sinclair, D. and Skensved, P. and Sonley, T. J. and Stonehill, L. C. and Tešić, G. and Tolich, N. and Tsui, T. and Van Berg, R. and VanDevender, B. A. and Virtue, C. J. and Wall, B. L. and Waller, D. and Wan Chan Tseung, H. and Wark, D. L. and Wendland, J. and West, N. and Wilkerson, J. F. and Wilson, J. R. and Winchester, T. and Wright, A. and Yeh, M. and Zhang, F. and Zuber, K. and SNO Collaboration},
abstractNote = {Neutrons produced in nuclear interactions initiated by cosmic-ray muons present an irreducible background to many rare-event searches, even in detectors located deep underground. Models for the production of these neutrons have been tested against previous experimental data, but the extrapolation to deeper sites is not well understood. Here we report results from an analysis of cosmogenically produced neutrons at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. A specific set of observables are presented, which can be used to benchmark the validity of geant4 physics models. In addition, the cosmogenic neutron yield, in units of 10^-4 cm2/(g μ), is measured to be 7.28±0.09(stat)+1.59-1.12(syst) in pure heavy water and 7.30±0.07(stat)+1.40-1.02(syst) in NaCl-loaded heavy water. These results provide unique insights into this potential background source for experiments at SNOLAB.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.100.112005},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 11,
volume = 100,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.100.112005

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