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Title: Enhanced Nucleation of Atomic Layer Deposited Contacts Improves Operational Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells in Air

Abstract

Metal-halide perovskites show promise as highly efficient solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other optoelectronic devices. Ensuring long-term stability is now a major priority. In this study, an ultrathin (2 nm) layer of polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) is used to functionalize the surface of C 60 for the subsequent deposition of atomic layer deposition (ALD) SnO 2, a commonly used electron contact bilayer for p-i-n devices. The enhanced nucleation results in a more continuous initial ALD SnO 2 layer that exhibits superior barrier properties, protecting Cs 0.25FA 0.75Pb(Br 0.20| 0.80) 3 films upon direct exposure to high temperatures (200 degrees C) and water. This surface modification with PEIE translates to more stable solar cells under aggressive testing conditions in air at 60 degrees C under illumination. This type of 'built-in' barrier layer mitigates degradation pathways not addressed by external encapsulation, such as internal halide or metal diffusion, while maintaining high device efficiency up to 18.5%. This nucleation strategy is also extended to ALD VOx films, demonstrating its potential to be broadly applied to other metal oxide contacts and device architectures.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1579319
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1573420
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5900-75614
Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; DE‐AC36‐08GO23808; DE‐EE0008167
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 47; Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; atomic layer deposition; barrier layer; nucleation; perovskite solar cells; stability testing

Citation Formats

Raiford, James A., Boyd, Caleb, Palmstrom, Axel, Wolf, Eli J, Fearon, Benhamin A., Berry, Joseph J, McGehee, Michael, and Bent, Stacey F. Enhanced Nucleation of Atomic Layer Deposited Contacts Improves Operational Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells in Air. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1002/aenm.201902353.
Raiford, James A., Boyd, Caleb, Palmstrom, Axel, Wolf, Eli J, Fearon, Benhamin A., Berry, Joseph J, McGehee, Michael, & Bent, Stacey F. Enhanced Nucleation of Atomic Layer Deposited Contacts Improves Operational Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells in Air. United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201902353.
Raiford, James A., Boyd, Caleb, Palmstrom, Axel, Wolf, Eli J, Fearon, Benhamin A., Berry, Joseph J, McGehee, Michael, and Bent, Stacey F. Thu . "Enhanced Nucleation of Atomic Layer Deposited Contacts Improves Operational Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells in Air". United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201902353.
@article{osti_1579319,
title = {Enhanced Nucleation of Atomic Layer Deposited Contacts Improves Operational Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells in Air},
author = {Raiford, James A. and Boyd, Caleb and Palmstrom, Axel and Wolf, Eli J and Fearon, Benhamin A. and Berry, Joseph J and McGehee, Michael and Bent, Stacey F.},
abstractNote = {Metal-halide perovskites show promise as highly efficient solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other optoelectronic devices. Ensuring long-term stability is now a major priority. In this study, an ultrathin (2 nm) layer of polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) is used to functionalize the surface of C60 for the subsequent deposition of atomic layer deposition (ALD) SnO2, a commonly used electron contact bilayer for p-i-n devices. The enhanced nucleation results in a more continuous initial ALD SnO2 layer that exhibits superior barrier properties, protecting Cs0.25FA0.75Pb(Br0.20|0.80)3 films upon direct exposure to high temperatures (200 degrees C) and water. This surface modification with PEIE translates to more stable solar cells under aggressive testing conditions in air at 60 degrees C under illumination. This type of 'built-in' barrier layer mitigates degradation pathways not addressed by external encapsulation, such as internal halide or metal diffusion, while maintaining high device efficiency up to 18.5%. This nucleation strategy is also extended to ALD VOx films, demonstrating its potential to be broadly applied to other metal oxide contacts and device architectures.},
doi = {10.1002/aenm.201902353},
journal = {Advanced Energy Materials},
number = 47,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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