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Title: Current transport and loss mechanisms in the Z accelerator

Abstract

A challenge for the TW-class accelerators driving Z-pinch experiments, such as Sandia National Laboratories’ Z machine, is to efficiently couple power from multiple storage banks into a single multi-MA transmission line. The physical processes that lead to current loss are identified in new large-scale, multidimensional simulations of the Z machine. Kinetic models follow the range of physics occurring during a pulse, from vacuum pulse propagation to charged-particle emission and magnetically-insulated current flow to electrode plasma expansion. Simulations demonstrate that current is diverted from the load through a combination of standard transport (uninsulated charged-particle flows) and anomalous transport. Standard transport occurs in regions where the electrode current density is a few 10 4–10 5 A/cm 2 and current is diverted from the load via transport without magnetic insulation. In regions with electrode current density >10 6 A/cm 2, electrode surface plasmas develop velocity-shear instabilities and a Hall-field-related transport which scales with electron density and may, therefore, lead to increased current loss.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1577926
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1581983
Report Number(s):
SAND-2019-8407J
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888; PRABCJ; 677646
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525; 209240
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

Bennett, Nicole, Welch, Dale R., Jennings, Christopher A., Yu, Edmund, Hess, Mark Harry, Hutsel, Brian Thomas, Laity, George, Moore, James K., Rose, David V., Peterson, Kyle, and Cuneo, Michael Edward. Current transport and loss mechanisms in the Z accelerator. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.120401.
Bennett, Nicole, Welch, Dale R., Jennings, Christopher A., Yu, Edmund, Hess, Mark Harry, Hutsel, Brian Thomas, Laity, George, Moore, James K., Rose, David V., Peterson, Kyle, & Cuneo, Michael Edward. Current transport and loss mechanisms in the Z accelerator. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.120401.
Bennett, Nicole, Welch, Dale R., Jennings, Christopher A., Yu, Edmund, Hess, Mark Harry, Hutsel, Brian Thomas, Laity, George, Moore, James K., Rose, David V., Peterson, Kyle, and Cuneo, Michael Edward. Tue . "Current transport and loss mechanisms in the Z accelerator". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.120401.
@article{osti_1577926,
title = {Current transport and loss mechanisms in the Z accelerator},
author = {Bennett, Nicole and Welch, Dale R. and Jennings, Christopher A. and Yu, Edmund and Hess, Mark Harry and Hutsel, Brian Thomas and Laity, George and Moore, James K. and Rose, David V. and Peterson, Kyle and Cuneo, Michael Edward},
abstractNote = {A challenge for the TW-class accelerators driving Z-pinch experiments, such as Sandia National Laboratories’ Z machine, is to efficiently couple power from multiple storage banks into a single multi-MA transmission line. The physical processes that lead to current loss are identified in new large-scale, multidimensional simulations of the Z machine. Kinetic models follow the range of physics occurring during a pulse, from vacuum pulse propagation to charged-particle emission and magnetically-insulated current flow to electrode plasma expansion. Simulations demonstrate that current is diverted from the load through a combination of standard transport (uninsulated charged-particle flows) and anomalous transport. Standard transport occurs in regions where the electrode current density is a few 104–105 A/cm2 and current is diverted from the load via transport without magnetic insulation. In regions with electrode current density >106 A/cm2, electrode surface plasmas develop velocity-shear instabilities and a Hall-field-related transport which scales with electron density and may, therefore, lead to increased current loss.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.120401},
journal = {Physical Review Accelerators and Beams},
number = 12,
volume = 22,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.22.120401

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