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Title: Ultra-deep tidal disruption events: prompt self-intersections and observables

Abstract

A star approaching a supermassive black hole (SMBH) can be torn apart in a tidal disruption event (TDE). Here we examine ultra-deep TDEs, a new regime in which the disrupted debris approaches close to the black hole’s Schwarzschild radius, and the leading part intersects the trailing part at the first pericenter passage. We calculate the range of penetration factors β vs SMBH masses M that produce these prompt self-intersections using a Newtonian analytic estimate and a general relativistic (GR) geodesic model. We find that significant self-intersection of Solar-type stars requires β ~ 50 – 127 for M/M⊙ = 104, down to β ~ 5.6 – 5.9 for M/M⊙ = 106. We run smoothed-particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations to corroborate our calculations and find close agreement, with a slightly shallower dependence on M. We predict that the shock from the collision emits an X-ray flare lasting t ~ 2 s with L ~ 1047 ergs/s at E ~ 2 keV, and the debris has a prompt accretion episode lasting t ~ several min. The events are rare and occur with a rate $$\dot{N} \lesssim 10^{-7}$$ Mpc–3 yr–1. Ultra-deep TDEs can probe the strong gravity and demographics of low-mass SMBHs.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) (United Kingdom)
OSTI Identifier:
1577797
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; 1616754; PF6-170170; ST/M005917/1
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 488; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; black hole physics; relativistic processes; stars: kinematics and dynamics; galaxies: nuclei; X-rays: bursts

Citation Formats

Darbha, Siva, Coughlin, Eric R., Kasen, Daniel, and Nixon, Chris. Ultra-deep tidal disruption events: prompt self-intersections and observables. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz1923.
Darbha, Siva, Coughlin, Eric R., Kasen, Daniel, & Nixon, Chris. Ultra-deep tidal disruption events: prompt self-intersections and observables. United States. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz1923
Darbha, Siva, Coughlin, Eric R., Kasen, Daniel, and Nixon, Chris. Fri . "Ultra-deep tidal disruption events: prompt self-intersections and observables". United States. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz1923. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1577797.
@article{osti_1577797,
title = {Ultra-deep tidal disruption events: prompt self-intersections and observables},
author = {Darbha, Siva and Coughlin, Eric R. and Kasen, Daniel and Nixon, Chris},
abstractNote = {A star approaching a supermassive black hole (SMBH) can be torn apart in a tidal disruption event (TDE). Here we examine ultra-deep TDEs, a new regime in which the disrupted debris approaches close to the black hole’s Schwarzschild radius, and the leading part intersects the trailing part at the first pericenter passage. We calculate the range of penetration factors β vs SMBH masses M that produce these prompt self-intersections using a Newtonian analytic estimate and a general relativistic (GR) geodesic model. We find that significant self-intersection of Solar-type stars requires β ~ 50 – 127 for M/M⊙ = 104, down to β ~ 5.6 – 5.9 for M/M⊙ = 106. We run smoothed-particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations to corroborate our calculations and find close agreement, with a slightly shallower dependence on M. We predict that the shock from the collision emits an X-ray flare lasting t ~ 2 s with L ~ 1047 ergs/s at E ~ 2 keV, and the debris has a prompt accretion episode lasting t ~ several min. The events are rare and occur with a rate $\dot{N} \lesssim 10^{-7}$ Mpc–3 yr–1. Ultra-deep TDEs can probe the strong gravity and demographics of low-mass SMBHs.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1923},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 488,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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