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Title: The global star formation law by supernova feedback

Abstract

ABSTRACT We address a simple model where the Kennicutt–Schmidt (KS) relation between the macroscopic densities of star formation rate (SFR, ρsfr) and gas (n) in galactic discs emerges from self-regulation of the SFR via supernova feedback. It arises from the physics of supernova bubbles, insensitive to the microscopic SFR recipe and not explicitly dependent on gravity. The key is that the filling factor of SFR-suppressed supernova bubbles self-regulates to a constant, f ∼ 0.5. Expressing the bubble fading radius and time in terms of n, the filling factor is $$f\propto S\, n^{-s}$$ with s ≃ 1.5, where S is the supernova rate density. A constant f thus refers to ρsfr ∝ n1.5, with a density-independent SFR efficiency per free-fall time ∼0.01. The self-regulation to f ∼ 0.5 and the convergence to a KS relation independent of the local SFR recipe are demonstrated in cosmological and isolated-galaxy simulations using different codes and recipes. In parallel, the spherical analysis of bubble evolution is generalized to clustered supernovae, analytically and via simulations, yielding s ≃ 1.5 ± 0.5. An analysis of photoionized bubbles about pre-supernova stars yields a range of KS slopes but the KS relation is dominated by the supernova bubbles. Superbubble blowouts may lead to an alternative self-regulation by outflows and recycling. While the model is oversimplified, its simplicity and validity in the simulations may argue that it captures the origin of the KS relation.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  2. Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)
  3. Univ. Paris Diderot, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France). Lab. AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp
  4. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)
  5. Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). The Niels Bohr Inst. and Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN)
  6. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1577796
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1564329
Report Number(s):
[arXiv:1903.00962v1]
[Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AST-1405962]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 488; Journal Issue: 4]; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; stars: formation; supernovae; general; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: formation; galaxies: ISM

Citation Formats

Dekel, Avishai, Sarkar, Kartick C., Jiang, Fangzhou, Bournaud, Frederic, Krumholz, Mark R., Ceverino, Daniel, and Primack, Joel R. The global star formation law by supernova feedback. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1919.
Dekel, Avishai, Sarkar, Kartick C., Jiang, Fangzhou, Bournaud, Frederic, Krumholz, Mark R., Ceverino, Daniel, & Primack, Joel R. The global star formation law by supernova feedback. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1919.
Dekel, Avishai, Sarkar, Kartick C., Jiang, Fangzhou, Bournaud, Frederic, Krumholz, Mark R., Ceverino, Daniel, and Primack, Joel R. Mon . "The global star formation law by supernova feedback". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1919.
@article{osti_1577796,
title = {The global star formation law by supernova feedback},
author = {Dekel, Avishai and Sarkar, Kartick C. and Jiang, Fangzhou and Bournaud, Frederic and Krumholz, Mark R. and Ceverino, Daniel and Primack, Joel R.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT We address a simple model where the Kennicutt–Schmidt (KS) relation between the macroscopic densities of star formation rate (SFR, ρsfr) and gas (n) in galactic discs emerges from self-regulation of the SFR via supernova feedback. It arises from the physics of supernova bubbles, insensitive to the microscopic SFR recipe and not explicitly dependent on gravity. The key is that the filling factor of SFR-suppressed supernova bubbles self-regulates to a constant, f ∼ 0.5. Expressing the bubble fading radius and time in terms of n, the filling factor is $f\propto S\, n^{-s}$ with s ≃ 1.5, where S is the supernova rate density. A constant f thus refers to ρsfr ∝ n1.5, with a density-independent SFR efficiency per free-fall time ∼0.01. The self-regulation to f ∼ 0.5 and the convergence to a KS relation independent of the local SFR recipe are demonstrated in cosmological and isolated-galaxy simulations using different codes and recipes. In parallel, the spherical analysis of bubble evolution is generalized to clustered supernovae, analytically and via simulations, yielding s ≃ 1.5 ± 0.5. An analysis of photoionized bubbles about pre-supernova stars yields a range of KS slopes but the KS relation is dominated by the supernova bubbles. Superbubble blowouts may lead to an alternative self-regulation by outflows and recycling. While the model is oversimplified, its simplicity and validity in the simulations may argue that it captures the origin of the KS relation.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1919},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = [4],
volume = [488],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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Slow Star Formation in Dense Gas: Evidence and Implications
journal, January 2007

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; Tan, Jonathan C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 654, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/509101

Radiative feedback and the low efficiency of galaxy formation in low-mass haloes at high redshift
journal, June 2014

  • Ceverino, Daniel; Klypin, Anatoly; Klimek, Elizabeth S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 442, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu956

A Universal, Local star Formation law in Galactic Clouds, Nearby Galaxies, High-Redshift Disks, and Starbursts
journal, December 2011

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; Dekel, Avishai; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 745, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/745/1/69

Numerical simulations of radiatively driven dusty winds
journal, July 2013

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; Thompson, Todd A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 434, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1174

Adaptive Refinement Tree: A New High‐Resolution N ‐Body Code for Cosmological Simulations
journal, July 1997

  • Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Khokhlov, Alexei M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 111, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/313015

The Structure of Dark Matter Halos in Dwarf Galaxies
journal, July 1995

  • Burkert, A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 447, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/309560

Observational Evidence of Dynamic star Formation rate in Milky way Giant Molecular Clouds
journal, December 2016

  • Lee, Eve J.; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Murray, Norman W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 833, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/833/2/229

The origin of dwarf galaxies, cold dark matter, and biased galaxy formation
journal, April 1986

  • Dekel, A.; Silk, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 303
  • DOI: 10.1086/164050

Star formation and clumps in cosmological galaxy simulations with radiation pressure feedback
journal, August 2014

  • Moody, Christopher E.; Guo, Yicheng; Mandelker, Nir
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 444, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1534

A sub-parsec resolution simulation of the Milky Way: global structure of the interstellar medium and properties of molecular clouds
journal, October 2013

  • Renaud, F.; Bournaud, F.; Emsellem, E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 436, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1698

The Driving Mechanism of Starbursts in Galaxy Mergers
journal, August 2010


Toy models for galaxy formation versus simulations
journal, August 2013

  • Dekel, A.; Zolotov, A.; Tweed, D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 435, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1338

The delay-time distribution of Type Ia supernovae from Sloan II: SDSS2 supernova DTD
journal, October 2012


The Second Survey of the Molecular Clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud by Nanten. ii. star Formation
journal, August 2009

  • Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 184, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/184/1/1