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Title: Planetary magnetic field control of ion escape from weakly magnetized planets

Abstract

ABSTRACT Intrinsic magnetic fields have long been thought to shield planets from atmospheric erosion via stellar winds; however, the influence of the plasma environment on atmospheric escape is complex. Here we study the influence of a weak intrinsic dipolar planetary magnetic field on the plasma environment and subsequent ion escape from a Mars-sized planet in a global three-dimensional hybrid simulation. We find that increasing the strength of a planet’s magnetic field enhances ion escape until the magnetic dipole’s standoff distance reaches the induced magnetosphere boundary. After this point increasing the planetary magnetic field begins to inhibit ion escape. This reflects a balance between shielding of the Southern hemisphere from ‘misaligned’ ion pickup forces and trapping of escaping ions by an equatorial plasmasphere. Thus, the planetary magnetic field associated with the peak ion escape rate is critically dependent on the stellar wind pressure. Where possible we have fit power laws for the variation of fundamental parameters (escape rate, escape power, polar cap opening angle, and effective interaction area) with magnetic field, and assessed upper and lower limits for the relationships.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences
  2. Aalto Univ., Otaniemi (Finland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1577634
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1543188
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 488; Journal Issue: 2]; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astronomy & Astrophysics; plasmas; methods: numerical; planets and satellites: atmospheres; planets and satellites: magnetic fields

Citation Formats

Egan, Hilary, Jarvinen, Riku, Ma, Yingjuan, and Brain, David. Planetary magnetic field control of ion escape from weakly magnetized planets. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1819.
Egan, Hilary, Jarvinen, Riku, Ma, Yingjuan, & Brain, David. Planetary magnetic field control of ion escape from weakly magnetized planets. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1819.
Egan, Hilary, Jarvinen, Riku, Ma, Yingjuan, and Brain, David. Wed . "Planetary magnetic field control of ion escape from weakly magnetized planets". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1819.
@article{osti_1577634,
title = {Planetary magnetic field control of ion escape from weakly magnetized planets},
author = {Egan, Hilary and Jarvinen, Riku and Ma, Yingjuan and Brain, David},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT Intrinsic magnetic fields have long been thought to shield planets from atmospheric erosion via stellar winds; however, the influence of the plasma environment on atmospheric escape is complex. Here we study the influence of a weak intrinsic dipolar planetary magnetic field on the plasma environment and subsequent ion escape from a Mars-sized planet in a global three-dimensional hybrid simulation. We find that increasing the strength of a planet’s magnetic field enhances ion escape until the magnetic dipole’s standoff distance reaches the induced magnetosphere boundary. After this point increasing the planetary magnetic field begins to inhibit ion escape. This reflects a balance between shielding of the Southern hemisphere from ‘misaligned’ ion pickup forces and trapping of escaping ions by an equatorial plasmasphere. Thus, the planetary magnetic field associated with the peak ion escape rate is critically dependent on the stellar wind pressure. Where possible we have fit power laws for the variation of fundamental parameters (escape rate, escape power, polar cap opening angle, and effective interaction area) with magnetic field, and assessed upper and lower limits for the relationships.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1819},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = [2],
volume = [488],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

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    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50387

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    Planetary Magnetic Fields and Solar Forcing: Implications for Atmospheric Evolution
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    journal, August 2008


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    Aeronomy of extra-solar giant planets at small orbital distances
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    Oxygen ion escape at Mars in a hybrid model: High energy and low energy ions
    journal, March 2010


    Divergent evolution of Earth and Venus: Influence of degassing, tectonics, and magnetic fields
    journal, November 2013


    The polar wind: Recent observations
    journal, November 2007

    • Yau, Andrew W.; Abe, Takumi; Peterson, W. K.
    • Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 69, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.08.010

    The habitability of planets orbiting M-dwarf stars
    journal, December 2016


    Martian shock and magnetic pile-up boundary positions and shapes determined from the Phobos 2 and Mars Global Surveyor data sets
    journal, April 2006


    Atmospheric and water loss from early Venus
    journal, November 2006

    • Kulikov, Yu. N.; Lammer, H.; Lichtenegger, H. I. M.
    • Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 54, Issue 13-14
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.04.021

    Magnetized Mars: Transformation of Earth-like magnetosphere to Venus-like induced magnetosphere
    journal, May 2008


    Cold ion escape from the Martian ionosphere
    journal, December 2015


    Dynamics of planetary ions in the induced magnetospheres of Venus and Mars
    journal, August 2016


    Mars' volatile and climate history
    journal, July 2001

    • Jakosky, Bruce M.; Phillips, Roger J.
    • Nature, Vol. 412, Issue 6843
    • DOI: 10.1038/35084184

    A terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit around Proxima Centauri
    journal, August 2016

    • Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Amado, Pedro J.; Barnes, John
    • Nature, Vol. 536, Issue 7617
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature19106

    Seven temperate terrestrial planets around the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1
    journal, February 2017

    • Gillon, Michaël; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Demory, Brice-Olivier
    • Nature, Vol. 542, Issue 7642
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature21360

    Earth’s ionospheric outflow dominated by hidden cold plasma
    journal, December 2008

    • Engwall, E.; Eriksson, A. I.; Cully, C. M.
    • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 2, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo387

    Why an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet against atmospheric escape
    journal, June 2018


    Atmospheric escape from the TRAPPIST-1 planets and implications for habitability
    journal, December 2017

    • Dong, Chuanfei; Jin, Meng; Lingam, Manasvi
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708010115

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    journal, June 2012

    • Edson, Adam R.; Kasting, James F.; Pollard, David
    • Astrobiology, Vol. 12, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1089/ast.2011.0762

    The Habitability of Proxima Centauri b: Environmental States and Observational Discriminants
    journal, February 2018

    • Meadows, Victoria S.; Arney, Giada N.; Schwieterman, Edward W.
    • Astrobiology, Vol. 18, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1089/ast.2016.1589

    On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets
    journal, April 2015

    • Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 449, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv618

    Mass, energy, and momentum capture from stellar winds by magnetized and unmagnetized planets: implications for atmospheric erosion and habitability
    journal, October 2018

    • Blackman, Eric G.; Tarduno, John A.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2640

    Core-powered mass-loss and the radius distribution of small exoplanets
    journal, February 2018

    • Ginzburg, Sivan; Schlichting, Hilke E.; Sari, Re'em
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 476, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty290

    Atmospheric mass-loss due to giant impacts: the importance of the thermal component for hydrogen–helium envelopes
    journal, March 2019

    • Biersteker, John B.; Schlichting, Hilke E.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 485, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz738

    Stellar influence on heavy ion escape from unmagnetized exoplanets
    journal, March 2019

    • Egan, Hilary; Jarvinen, Riku; Brain, David
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 486, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz788

    Venus: Atmospheric Evolution
    journal, February 1967


    Mars and Earth: Origin and Abundance of Volatiles
    journal, November 1977


    The Evaporation Valley in the Kepler Planets
    journal, September 2017


    Is Proxima Centauri b Habitable? A Study of Atmospheric Loss
    journal, March 2017

    • Dong, Chuanfei; Lingam, Manasvi; Ma, Yingjuan
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 837, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa6438

    The Threatening Magnetic and Plasma Environment of the TRAPPIST-1 Planets
    journal, July 2017

    • Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 843, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa79ed

    On the Magnetic Protection of the Atmosphere of Proxima Centauri b
    journal, July 2017


    The Induced Global Looping Magnetic Field on Mars
    journal, January 2019


    Magnetized Mars: Spatial distribution of oxygen ions
    journal, February 2012


    Modelling the solar wind interaction with Mercury by a quasi-neutral hybrid model
    journal, January 2003


    Ionospheric control of the magnetosphere: conductance
    journal, January 2004


    Oxygen ion escape from Venus in a global hybrid simulation: role of the ionospheric O<sup>+</sup> ions
    journal, January 2009