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Title: Gyrokinetic analysis and simulation of pedestals to identify the culprits for energy losses using ‘fingerprints’

Abstract

Fusion performance in tokamaks hinges critically on the efficacy of the edge transport barrier (ETB) in suppressing energy losses. The new concept of 'fingerprints' is introduced to identify the instabilities that cause transport losses in the ETBs of many of today's experiments, from among widely posited candidates. Analysis of the gyrokinetic-Maxwell equations and gyrokinetic simulations of experiments reveals that each mode type produces characteristic ratios of transport in the various channels: density, heat, and impurities. This, together with experimental observations of transport in some channel or of the relative size of the driving sources of channels, can identify or determine the dominant modes causing energy transport. In multiple H-mode cases with edge-localized modes that are examined, these fingerprints indicate that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-like modes are apparently not the dominant agent of energy transport; rather, this role is played by micro-tearing modes (MTMs) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, and furthermore, possibly by ion temperature gradient/trapped electron modes (ITG/TEM) on JET (Joint European Torus). MHD-like modes may dominate the electron particle losses. Fluctuation frequency can also be a vital means of identification, and is often closely related to the transport fingerprint. The analytical arguments unify and explain previously disparate experimental observations onmore » multiple devices, including DIII-D, JET, and ASDEX-U. Detailed simulations of two DIII-D ETBs also demonstrate and corroborate this.« less

Authors:
; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
[the DIII-D TEAM; JET Contributors]
OSTI Identifier:
1577624
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-09CH11466; FC02-04ER54698; FG02-04ER54742]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 59; Journal Issue: 9]; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Kotschenreuther, M., Liu, X., Hatch, D. R., Mahajan, S., Zheng, L., Diallo, A., Groebner, R., Hillesheim, J. C., Maggi, C. F., Giroud, C., Koechl, F., Parail, V., Saarelma, S., Solano, E., and Chankin, A. Gyrokinetic analysis and simulation of pedestals to identify the culprits for energy losses using ‘fingerprints’. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ab1fa2.
Kotschenreuther, M., Liu, X., Hatch, D. R., Mahajan, S., Zheng, L., Diallo, A., Groebner, R., Hillesheim, J. C., Maggi, C. F., Giroud, C., Koechl, F., Parail, V., Saarelma, S., Solano, E., & Chankin, A. Gyrokinetic analysis and simulation of pedestals to identify the culprits for energy losses using ‘fingerprints’. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ab1fa2.
Kotschenreuther, M., Liu, X., Hatch, D. R., Mahajan, S., Zheng, L., Diallo, A., Groebner, R., Hillesheim, J. C., Maggi, C. F., Giroud, C., Koechl, F., Parail, V., Saarelma, S., Solano, E., and Chankin, A. Fri . "Gyrokinetic analysis and simulation of pedestals to identify the culprits for energy losses using ‘fingerprints’". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ab1fa2.
@article{osti_1577624,
title = {Gyrokinetic analysis and simulation of pedestals to identify the culprits for energy losses using ‘fingerprints’},
author = {Kotschenreuther, M. and Liu, X. and Hatch, D. R. and Mahajan, S. and Zheng, L. and Diallo, A. and Groebner, R. and Hillesheim, J. C. and Maggi, C. F. and Giroud, C. and Koechl, F. and Parail, V. and Saarelma, S. and Solano, E. and Chankin, A.},
abstractNote = {Fusion performance in tokamaks hinges critically on the efficacy of the edge transport barrier (ETB) in suppressing energy losses. The new concept of 'fingerprints' is introduced to identify the instabilities that cause transport losses in the ETBs of many of today's experiments, from among widely posited candidates. Analysis of the gyrokinetic-Maxwell equations and gyrokinetic simulations of experiments reveals that each mode type produces characteristic ratios of transport in the various channels: density, heat, and impurities. This, together with experimental observations of transport in some channel or of the relative size of the driving sources of channels, can identify or determine the dominant modes causing energy transport. In multiple H-mode cases with edge-localized modes that are examined, these fingerprints indicate that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-like modes are apparently not the dominant agent of energy transport; rather, this role is played by micro-tearing modes (MTMs) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, and furthermore, possibly by ion temperature gradient/trapped electron modes (ITG/TEM) on JET (Joint European Torus). MHD-like modes may dominate the electron particle losses. Fluctuation frequency can also be a vital means of identification, and is often closely related to the transport fingerprint. The analytical arguments unify and explain previously disparate experimental observations on multiple devices, including DIII-D, JET, and ASDEX-U. Detailed simulations of two DIII-D ETBs also demonstrate and corroborate this.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/ab1fa2},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = [9],
volume = [59],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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