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Title: The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines

Abstract

In this paper, we present precise photospheric parameters of 282 M dwarfs determined from fitting the most recent version of PHOENIX models to high-resolution CARMENES spectra in the visible (0.52–0.96 μm) and NIR wavelength range (0.96–1.71 μm). With its aim to search for habitable planets around M dwarfs, several planets of different masses have been detected. The characterization of the target sample is important for the ability to derive and constrain the physical properties of any planetary systems that are detected. As a continuation of previous work in this context, we derived the fundamental stellar parameters effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity of the CARMENES M-dwarf targets from PHOENIX model fits using a χ 2 method. We calculated updated PHOENIX stellar atmosphere models that include a new equation of state to especially account for spectral features of low-temperature stellar atmospheres as well as new atomic and molecular line lists. We show the importance of selecting magnetically insensitive lines for fitting to avoid effects of stellar activity in the line profiles. For the first time, we directly compare stellar parameters derived from multiwavelength range spectra, simultaneously observed for the same star. In comparison with literature values we show that fundamental parametersmore » derived from visible spectra and visible and NIR spectra combined are in better agreement than those derived from the same spectra in the NIR alone.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [4];  [11];  [3];  [12];  [13];  [3] more »;  [7];  [13];  [8];  [5];  [6];  [8];  [1];  [3] « less
  1. Hamburger Sternwarte, Hamburg (Germany)
  2. Max Planck Inst. for Solar System Research, Göttingen (Germany)
  3. Georg-August-Univ., Göttingen (Germany). Institut für Astrophysik
  4. Inst. de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Granada (Spain)
  5. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid (Spain)
  6. Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain)
  7. Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)
  8. Inst. de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Barcelona (Spain); Inst. d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Barcelona (Spain)
  9. Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CSIC-MPG), Almería (Spain). Observatorio Astronómico de Calar Alto
  10. Inst. de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Granada (Spain); Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom)
  11. Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, Tenerife (Spain); Univ. de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
  12. Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Germany)
  13. Max Planck Inst. für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) Center (NERSC); Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
OSTI Identifier:
1577586
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC03-76SF00098]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 627]; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; astronomical databases; miscellaneous - methods; data analysis - techniques; spectroscopic - stars; late-type - stars; fundamental parameters - stars; low-mass

Citation Formats

Passegger, V. M., Schweitzer, A., Shulyak, D., Nagel, E., Hauschildt, P. H., Reiners, A., Amado, P. J., Caballero, J. A., Cortés-Contreras, M., Domínguez-Fernández, A. J., Quirrenbach, A., Ribas, I., Azzaro, M., Anglada-Escudé, G., Bauer, F. F., Béjar, V. J. S., Dreizler, S., Guenther, E. W., Henning, T., Jeffers, S. V., Kaminski, A., Kürster, M., Lafarga, M., Martín, E. L., Montes, D., Morales, J. C., Schmitt, J. H. M. M., and Zechmeister, M. The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201935679.
Passegger, V. M., Schweitzer, A., Shulyak, D., Nagel, E., Hauschildt, P. H., Reiners, A., Amado, P. J., Caballero, J. A., Cortés-Contreras, M., Domínguez-Fernández, A. J., Quirrenbach, A., Ribas, I., Azzaro, M., Anglada-Escudé, G., Bauer, F. F., Béjar, V. J. S., Dreizler, S., Guenther, E. W., Henning, T., Jeffers, S. V., Kaminski, A., Kürster, M., Lafarga, M., Martín, E. L., Montes, D., Morales, J. C., Schmitt, J. H. M. M., & Zechmeister, M. The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201935679.
Passegger, V. M., Schweitzer, A., Shulyak, D., Nagel, E., Hauschildt, P. H., Reiners, A., Amado, P. J., Caballero, J. A., Cortés-Contreras, M., Domínguez-Fernández, A. J., Quirrenbach, A., Ribas, I., Azzaro, M., Anglada-Escudé, G., Bauer, F. F., Béjar, V. J. S., Dreizler, S., Guenther, E. W., Henning, T., Jeffers, S. V., Kaminski, A., Kürster, M., Lafarga, M., Martín, E. L., Montes, D., Morales, J. C., Schmitt, J. H. M. M., and Zechmeister, M. Wed . "The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201935679.
@article{osti_1577586,
title = {The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines},
author = {Passegger, V. M. and Schweitzer, A. and Shulyak, D. and Nagel, E. and Hauschildt, P. H. and Reiners, A. and Amado, P. J. and Caballero, J. A. and Cortés-Contreras, M. and Domínguez-Fernández, A. J. and Quirrenbach, A. and Ribas, I. and Azzaro, M. and Anglada-Escudé, G. and Bauer, F. F. and Béjar, V. J. S. and Dreizler, S. and Guenther, E. W. and Henning, T. and Jeffers, S. V. and Kaminski, A. and Kürster, M. and Lafarga, M. and Martín, E. L. and Montes, D. and Morales, J. C. and Schmitt, J. H. M. M. and Zechmeister, M.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we present precise photospheric parameters of 282 M dwarfs determined from fitting the most recent version of PHOENIX models to high-resolution CARMENES spectra in the visible (0.52–0.96 μm) and NIR wavelength range (0.96–1.71 μm). With its aim to search for habitable planets around M dwarfs, several planets of different masses have been detected. The characterization of the target sample is important for the ability to derive and constrain the physical properties of any planetary systems that are detected. As a continuation of previous work in this context, we derived the fundamental stellar parameters effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity of the CARMENES M-dwarf targets from PHOENIX model fits using a χ2 method. We calculated updated PHOENIX stellar atmosphere models that include a new equation of state to especially account for spectral features of low-temperature stellar atmospheres as well as new atomic and molecular line lists. We show the importance of selecting magnetically insensitive lines for fitting to avoid effects of stellar activity in the line profiles. For the first time, we directly compare stellar parameters derived from multiwavelength range spectra, simultaneously observed for the same star. In comparison with literature values we show that fundamental parameters derived from visible spectra and visible and NIR spectra combined are in better agreement than those derived from the same spectra in the NIR alone.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201935679},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = [627],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

The CARMENES Search for Exoplanets around M Dwarfs: A Low-mass Planet in the Temperate Zone of the Nearby K2-18
journal, May 2018

  • Sarkis, Paula; Henning, Thomas; Kürster, Martin
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 155, Issue 6
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The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy★
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HATS-6b: A WARM SATURN TRANSITING AN EARLY M DWARF STAR, AND A SET OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZING K AND M DWARF PLANET HOSTS
journal, April 2015


Chemical Abundances of M-Dwarfs from the Apogee Survey. I. The Exoplanet Hosting Stars Kepler-138 and Kepler-186
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Barycentric Corrections at 1 cm s -1 for Precise Doppler Velocities
journal, September 2014

  • Wright, J. T.; Eastman, J. D.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 126, Issue 943
  • DOI: 10.1086/678541

Stellar parameters of early-M dwarfs from ratios of spectral features at optical wavelengths
journal, May 2015


Stellar diameters and temperatures – V. 11 newly characterized exoplanet host stars
journal, January 2014

  • von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; van Belle, Gerard T.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 438, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2360

Strong dipole magnetic fields in fast rotating fully convective stars
journal, July 2017


The M dwarf planet search programme at the ESO VLT + UVES: A search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of M dwarfs
journal, August 2009


The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: A Neptune-mass planet traversing the habitable zone around HD 180617*
journal, October 2018


Chemo-kinematic Ages of Eccentric-planet-hosting M Dwarf Stars
journal, August 2018


New limb-darkening coefficients for PHOENIX/1D model atmospheres: I. Calculations for 1500 K  ≤
journal, September 2012


Metallicity determination of M dwarfs: Expanded parameter range in metallicity and effective temperature
journal, August 2017


Improving PARSEC models for very low mass stars
journal, September 2014

  • Chen, Yang; Girardi, Léo; Bressan, Alessandro
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 444, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1605

The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars
journal, April 2018


The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Different roads to radii and masses of the target stars⋆
journal, May 2019


M Dwarf Metallicities and Giant Planet Occurrence: Ironing out Uncertainties and Systematics
journal, July 2014


Prospecting in Ultracool Dwarfs: Measuring the Metallicities of mid- and Late-M Dwarfs
journal, May 2014


Spectrum radial velocity analyser (SERVAL): High-precision radial velocities and two alternative spectral indicators
journal, December 2017


Fundamental M-dwarf parameters from high-resolution spectra using PHOENIX ACES models: I. Parameter accuracy and benchmark stars
journal, February 2016


PROSPECTING IN LATE-TYPE DWARFS: A CALIBRATION OF INFRARED AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPIC METALLICITIES OF LATE K AND M DWARFS SPANNING 1.5 dex
journal, January 2013


Parallel Implementation of the PHOENIX Generalized Stellar Atmosphere Program
journal, July 1997

  • Hauschildt, Peter H.; Baron, E.; Allard, France
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 483, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/304233

Near-Infrared Metallicities, Radial Velocities, and Spectral Types for 447 Nearby m Dwarfs
journal, December 2013

  • Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 147, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/147/1/20

New PARSEC evolutionary tracks of massive stars at low metallicity: testing canonical stellar evolution in nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies
journal, November 2014

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Exploring the stellar properties of M dwarfs with high-resolution spectroscopy from the optical to the near-infrared
journal, December 2018


The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: HD147379 b: A nearby Neptune in the temperate zone of an early-M dwarf★
journal, January 2018


Chromospheric activity, lithium and radial velocities of single late-type stars possible members of young moving groups
journal, December 2001

  • Montes, D.; López-Santiago, J.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.
  • Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 379, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011385

How to Constrain Your M Dwarf. II. The Mass–Luminosity–Metallicity Relation from 0.075 to 0.70 Solar Masses
journal, January 2019

  • Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent; Kraus, Adam L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 871, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaf3bc

A new extensive library of PHOENIX stellar atmospheres and synthetic spectra
journal, April 2013


New evolutionary models for pre-main sequence and main sequence low-mass stars down to the hydrogen-burning limit
journal, April 2015


Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets
journal, June 2012

  • Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Freytag, B.
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How to Constrain your m Dwarf: Measuring Effective Temperature, Bolometric Luminosity, Mass, and Radius
journal, May 2015


The Limiting Effects of Dust in Brown Dwarf Model Atmospheres
journal, July 2001

  • Allard, France; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Alexander, David R.
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A major upgrade of the VALD database
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Gaia Data Release 2 : Summary of the contents and survey properties
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The Chemical Composition of the Sun
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Numerical solution of the expanding stellar atmosphere problem
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Stellar and Planetary Characterization of the Ross 128 Exoplanetary System from APOGEE Spectra
journal, June 2018

  • Souto, Diogo; Unterborn, Cayman T.; Smith, Verne V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 860, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aac896

The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Nine new double-line spectroscopic binary stars
journal, November 2018


parsec : stellar tracks and isochrones with the PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code
journal, October 2012


Exploring the magnetic field complexity in M dwarfs at the boundary to full convection
journal, February 2014


Evidence for Magnetic flux Saturation in Rapidly Rotating m Stars
journal, February 2009


METALLICITY AND TEMPERATURE INDICATORS IN M DWARF K -BAND SPECTRA: TESTING NEW AND UPDATED CALIBRATIONS WITH OBSERVATIONS OF 133 SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD M DWARFS
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Flat-relative optimal extraction: A quick and efficient algorithm for stabilised spectrographs⋆
journal, December 2013


The nitrogen abundance of the very metal-poor star HD 122563.
journal, September 1973


A fast operator perturbation method for the solution of the special relativistic equation of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry
journal, June 1992


New algorithms for reducing cross-dispersed echelle spectra
journal, April 2002


parsec evolutionary tracks of massive stars up to 350 M ⊙ at metallicities 0.0001 ≤ Z ≤ 0.04
journal, July 2015

  • Chen, Yang; Bressan, Alessandro; Girardi, Léo
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 452, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1281

The Gaia mission
journal, November 2016


A Physically Motivated and Empirically Calibrated Method to Measure the Effective Temperature, Metallicity, and Ti Abundance of M Dwarfs
journal, December 2017

  • Veyette, Mark J.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Mann, Andrew W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 851, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa96aa

Solar Chemical Abundances Determined with a CO5BOLD 3D Model Atmosphere
journal, March 2010


The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database
journal, December 2017

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  • Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 203
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.06.038

The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Activity indicators at visible and near-infrared wavelengths★
journal, March 2019


Multi-level non-LTE radiative transfer in expanding shells
journal, September 1993


A candidate super-Earth planet orbiting near the snow line of Barnard’s star
journal, November 2018


Calibrating echelle spectrographs with Fabry-Pérot etalons
journal, September 2015


Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction: I. Method and application to ESO instruments ⋆⋆⋆
journal, April 2015


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Multi-level non-LTE radiative transfer in expanding shells
    journal, September 1993


    Exploring the stellar properties of M dwarfs with high-resolution spectroscopy from the optical to the near-infrared
    journal, December 2018


    Exploring the magnetic field complexity in M dwarfs at the boundary to full convection
    journal, February 2014


    Prospecting in Ultracool Dwarfs: Measuring the Metallicities of mid- and Late-M Dwarfs
    journal, May 2014


    The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database
    journal, December 2017

    • Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Hill, C.
    • Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 203
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.06.038

    Stellar and Planetary Characterization of the Ross 128 Exoplanetary System from APOGEE Spectra
    journal, June 2018

    • Souto, Diogo; Unterborn, Cayman T.; Smith, Verne V.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 860, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aac896

    parsec : stellar tracks and isochrones with the PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code
    journal, October 2012


    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Different roads to radii and masses of the target stars⋆
    journal, May 2019


    Calibrating echelle spectrographs with Fabry-Pérot etalons
    journal, September 2015


    Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets
    journal, June 2012

    • Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Freytag, B.
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 370, Issue 1968
    • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0269

    New evolutionary models for pre-main sequence and main sequence low-mass stars down to the hydrogen-burning limit
    journal, April 2015


    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: A Neptune-mass planet traversing the habitable zone around HD 180617*
    journal, October 2018


    The Chemical Composition of the Sun
    journal, September 2009


    Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction: I. Method and application to ESO instruments ⋆⋆⋆
    journal, April 2015


    Strong dipole magnetic fields in fast rotating fully convective stars
    journal, July 2017


    The Limiting Effects of Dust in Brown Dwarf Model Atmospheres
    journal, July 2001

    • Allard, France; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Alexander, David R.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 556, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/321547

    A Physically Motivated and Empirically Calibrated Method to Measure the Effective Temperature, Metallicity, and Ti Abundance of M Dwarfs
    journal, December 2017

    • Veyette, Mark J.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Mann, Andrew W.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 851, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa96aa

    Flat-relative optimal extraction: A quick and efficient algorithm for stabilised spectrographs⋆
    journal, December 2013


    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Activity indicators at visible and near-infrared wavelengths★
    journal, March 2019


    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: HD147379 b: A nearby Neptune in the temperate zone of an early-M dwarf★
    journal, January 2018


    Chemo-kinematic Ages of Eccentric-planet-hosting M Dwarf Stars
    journal, August 2018


    parsec evolutionary tracks of massive stars up to 350 M ⊙ at metallicities 0.0001 ≤ Z ≤ 0.04
    journal, July 2015

    • Chen, Yang; Bressan, Alessandro; Girardi, Léo
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 452, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1281

    A candidate super-Earth planet orbiting near the snow line of Barnard’s star
    journal, November 2018


    The nitrogen abundance of the very metal-poor star HD 122563.
    journal, September 1973


    Stellar diameters and temperatures – V. 11 newly characterized exoplanet host stars
    journal, January 2014

    • von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; van Belle, Gerard T.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 438, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2360

    Metallicity determination of M dwarfs: Expanded parameter range in metallicity and effective temperature
    journal, August 2017


    How to Constrain Your M Dwarf. II. The Mass–Luminosity–Metallicity Relation from 0.075 to 0.70 Solar Masses
    journal, January 2019

    • Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent; Kraus, Adam L.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 871, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaf3bc

    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars
    journal, April 2018


    Spectrum radial velocity analyser (SERVAL): High-precision radial velocities and two alternative spectral indicators
    journal, December 2017


    Parallel Implementation of the PHOENIX Generalized Stellar Atmosphere Program
    journal, July 1997

    • Hauschildt, Peter H.; Baron, E.; Allard, France
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 483, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/304233

    PROSPECTING IN LATE-TYPE DWARFS: A CALIBRATION OF INFRARED AND VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPIC METALLICITIES OF LATE K AND M DWARFS SPANNING 1.5 dex
    journal, January 2013


    New algorithms for reducing cross-dispersed echelle spectra
    journal, April 2002


    The Gaia mission
    journal, November 2016


    New PARSEC evolutionary tracks of massive stars at low metallicity: testing canonical stellar evolution in nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies
    journal, November 2014

    • Tang, Jing; Bressan, Alessandro; Rosenfield, Philip
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 445, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2029

    Chromospheric activity, lithium and radial velocities of single late-type stars possible members of young moving groups
    journal, December 2001

    • Montes, D.; López-Santiago, J.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.
    • Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 379, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011385

    Solar Chemical Abundances Determined with a CO5BOLD 3D Model Atmosphere
    journal, March 2010


    HATS-6b: A WARM SATURN TRANSITING AN EARLY M DWARF STAR, AND A SET OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZING K AND M DWARF PLANET HOSTS
    journal, April 2015


    A new extensive library of PHOENIX stellar atmospheres and synthetic spectra
    journal, April 2013


    A major upgrade of the VALD database
    journal, April 2015


    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Nine new double-line spectroscopic binary stars
    journal, November 2018


    Improving PARSEC models for very low mass stars
    journal, September 2014

    • Chen, Yang; Girardi, Léo; Bressan, Alessandro
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 444, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1605

    Near-Infrared Metallicities, Radial Velocities, and Spectral Types for 447 Nearby m Dwarfs
    journal, December 2013

    • Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan
    • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 147, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/147/1/20

    New limb-darkening coefficients for PHOENIX/1D model atmospheres: I. Calculations for 1500 K  ≤
    journal, September 2012


    The CARMENES Search for Exoplanets around M Dwarfs: A Low-mass Planet in the Temperate Zone of the Nearby K2-18
    journal, May 2018

    • Sarkis, Paula; Henning, Thomas; Kürster, Martin
    • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 155, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aac108

    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy★
    journal, July 2018


    Chemical Abundances of M-Dwarfs from the Apogee Survey. I. The Exoplanet Hosting Stars Kepler-138 and Kepler-186
    journal, January 2017


    Fundamental M-dwarf parameters from high-resolution spectra using PHOENIX ACES models: I. Parameter accuracy and benchmark stars
    journal, February 2016


    Barycentric Corrections at 1 cm s -1 for Precise Doppler Velocities
    journal, September 2014

    • Wright, J. T.; Eastman, J. D.
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 126, Issue 943
    • DOI: 10.1086/678541

    The M dwarf planet search programme at the ESO VLT + UVES: A search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of M dwarfs
    journal, August 2009


    Stellar parameters of early-M dwarfs from ratios of spectral features at optical wavelengths
    journal, May 2015