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Title: The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines

Abstract

In this paper, we present precise photospheric parameters of 282 M dwarfs determined from fitting the most recent version of PHOENIX models to high-resolution CARMENES spectra in the visible (0.52–0.96 μm) and NIR wavelength range (0.96–1.71 μm). With its aim to search for habitable planets around M dwarfs, several planets of different masses have been detected. The characterization of the target sample is important for the ability to derive and constrain the physical properties of any planetary systems that are detected. As a continuation of previous work in this context, we derived the fundamental stellar parameters effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity of the CARMENES M-dwarf targets from PHOENIX model fits using a χ2 method. We calculated updated PHOENIX stellar atmosphere models that include a new equation of state to especially account for spectral features of low-temperature stellar atmospheres as well as new atomic and molecular line lists. We show the importance of selecting magnetically insensitive lines for fitting to avoid effects of stellar activity in the line profiles. For the first time, we directly compare stellar parameters derived from multiwavelength range spectra, simultaneously observed for the same star. In comparison with literature values we show that fundamental parameters derivedmore » from visible spectra and visible and NIR spectra combined are in better agreement than those derived from the same spectra in the NIR alone.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [4];  [11];  [3];  [12];  [13];  [3] more »;  [7];  [13];  [8];  [5];  [6];  [8];  [1];  [3] « less
  1. Hamburger Sternwarte, Hamburg (Germany)
  2. Max Planck Inst. for Solar System Research, Göttingen (Germany)
  3. Georg-August-Univ., Göttingen (Germany). Institut für Astrophysik
  4. Inst. de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Granada (Spain)
  5. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid (Spain)
  6. Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain)
  7. Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)
  8. Inst. de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Barcelona (Spain); Inst. d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Barcelona (Spain)
  9. Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CSIC-MPG), Almería (Spain). Observatorio Astronómico de Calar Alto
  10. Inst. de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Granada (Spain); Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom)
  11. Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, Tenerife (Spain); Univ. de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
  12. Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Germany)
  13. Max Planck Inst. für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) Center (NERSC); Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR)
OSTI Identifier:
1577586
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC03-76SF00098
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 627; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; astronomical databases; miscellaneous - methods; data analysis - techniques; spectroscopic - stars; late-type - stars; fundamental parameters - stars; low-mass

Citation Formats

Passegger, V. M., Schweitzer, A., Shulyak, D., Nagel, E., Hauschildt, P. H., Reiners, A., Amado, P. J., Caballero, J. A., Cortés-Contreras, M., Domínguez-Fernández, A. J., Quirrenbach, A., Ribas, I., Azzaro, M., Anglada-Escudé, G., Bauer, F. F., Béjar, V. J. S., Dreizler, S., Guenther, E. W., Henning, T., Jeffers, S. V., Kaminski, A., Kürster, M., Lafarga, M., Martín, E. L., Montes, D., Morales, J. C., Schmitt, J. H. M. M., and Zechmeister, M. The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201935679.
Passegger, V. M., Schweitzer, A., Shulyak, D., Nagel, E., Hauschildt, P. H., Reiners, A., Amado, P. J., Caballero, J. A., Cortés-Contreras, M., Domínguez-Fernández, A. J., Quirrenbach, A., Ribas, I., Azzaro, M., Anglada-Escudé, G., Bauer, F. F., Béjar, V. J. S., Dreizler, S., Guenther, E. W., Henning, T., Jeffers, S. V., Kaminski, A., Kürster, M., Lafarga, M., Martín, E. L., Montes, D., Morales, J. C., Schmitt, J. H. M. M., & Zechmeister, M. The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201935679
Passegger, V. M., Schweitzer, A., Shulyak, D., Nagel, E., Hauschildt, P. H., Reiners, A., Amado, P. J., Caballero, J. A., Cortés-Contreras, M., Domínguez-Fernández, A. J., Quirrenbach, A., Ribas, I., Azzaro, M., Anglada-Escudé, G., Bauer, F. F., Béjar, V. J. S., Dreizler, S., Guenther, E. W., Henning, T., Jeffers, S. V., Kaminski, A., Kürster, M., Lafarga, M., Martín, E. L., Montes, D., Morales, J. C., Schmitt, J. H. M. M., and Zechmeister, M. Wed . "The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201935679. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1577586.
@article{osti_1577586,
title = {The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines},
author = {Passegger, V. M. and Schweitzer, A. and Shulyak, D. and Nagel, E. and Hauschildt, P. H. and Reiners, A. and Amado, P. J. and Caballero, J. A. and Cortés-Contreras, M. and Domínguez-Fernández, A. J. and Quirrenbach, A. and Ribas, I. and Azzaro, M. and Anglada-Escudé, G. and Bauer, F. F. and Béjar, V. J. S. and Dreizler, S. and Guenther, E. W. and Henning, T. and Jeffers, S. V. and Kaminski, A. and Kürster, M. and Lafarga, M. and Martín, E. L. and Montes, D. and Morales, J. C. and Schmitt, J. H. M. M. and Zechmeister, M.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we present precise photospheric parameters of 282 M dwarfs determined from fitting the most recent version of PHOENIX models to high-resolution CARMENES spectra in the visible (0.52–0.96 μm) and NIR wavelength range (0.96–1.71 μm). With its aim to search for habitable planets around M dwarfs, several planets of different masses have been detected. The characterization of the target sample is important for the ability to derive and constrain the physical properties of any planetary systems that are detected. As a continuation of previous work in this context, we derived the fundamental stellar parameters effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity of the CARMENES M-dwarf targets from PHOENIX model fits using a χ2 method. We calculated updated PHOENIX stellar atmosphere models that include a new equation of state to especially account for spectral features of low-temperature stellar atmospheres as well as new atomic and molecular line lists. We show the importance of selecting magnetically insensitive lines for fitting to avoid effects of stellar activity in the line profiles. For the first time, we directly compare stellar parameters derived from multiwavelength range spectra, simultaneously observed for the same star. In comparison with literature values we show that fundamental parameters derived from visible spectra and visible and NIR spectra combined are in better agreement than those derived from the same spectra in the NIR alone.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201935679},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 627,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Different roads to radii and masses of the target stars⋆
    journal, May 2019


    Calibrating echelle spectrographs with Fabry-Pérot etalons
    journal, September 2015


    Numerical solution of the expanding stellar atmosphere problem
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    Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets
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    • Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Freytag, B.
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    New evolutionary models for pre-main sequence and main sequence low-mass stars down to the hydrogen-burning limit
    journal, April 2015


    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: A Neptune-mass planet traversing the habitable zone around HD 180617*
    journal, October 2018


    The Chemical Composition of the Sun
    journal, September 2009


    Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction: I. Method and application to ESO instruments ⋆⋆⋆
    journal, April 2015


    Strong dipole magnetic fields in fast rotating fully convective stars
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    The Limiting Effects of Dust in Brown Dwarf Model Atmospheres
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    • Allard, France; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Alexander, David R.
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    A Physically Motivated and Empirically Calibrated Method to Measure the Effective Temperature, Metallicity, and Ti Abundance of M Dwarfs
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    Stellar Diameters and Temperatures. ii. Main-Sequence k- and M-Stars
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    Flat-relative optimal extraction: A quick and efficient algorithm for stabilised spectrographs⋆
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    METALLICITY AND TEMPERATURE INDICATORS IN M DWARF K -BAND SPECTRA: TESTING NEW AND UPDATED CALIBRATIONS WITH OBSERVATIONS OF 133 SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD M DWARFS
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    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Activity indicators at visible and near-infrared wavelengths★
    journal, March 2019


    How to Constrain your m Dwarf: Measuring Effective Temperature, Bolometric Luminosity, Mass, and Radius
    journal, May 2015


    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: HD147379 b: A nearby Neptune in the temperate zone of an early-M dwarf★
    journal, January 2018


    Evidence for Magnetic flux Saturation in Rapidly Rotating m Stars
    journal, February 2009


    Chemo-kinematic Ages of Eccentric-planet-hosting M Dwarf Stars
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    parsec evolutionary tracks of massive stars up to 350 M ⊙ at metallicities 0.0001 ≤ Z ≤ 0.04
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    • Chen, Yang; Bressan, Alessandro; Girardi, Léo
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    A candidate super-Earth planet orbiting near the snow line of Barnard’s star
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    The nitrogen abundance of the very metal-poor star HD 122563.
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    Stellar diameters and temperatures – V. 11 newly characterized exoplanet host stars
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    Metallicity determination of M dwarfs: Expanded parameter range in metallicity and effective temperature
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    How to Constrain Your M Dwarf. II. The Mass–Luminosity–Metallicity Relation from 0.075 to 0.70 Solar Masses
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    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars
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    Spectrum radial velocity analyser (SERVAL): High-precision radial velocities and two alternative spectral indicators
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    Parallel Implementation of the PHOENIX Generalized Stellar Atmosphere Program
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    New algorithms for reducing cross-dispersed echelle spectra
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    The Gaia mission
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    New PARSEC evolutionary tracks of massive stars at low metallicity: testing canonical stellar evolution in nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies
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    • Tang, Jing; Bressan, Alessandro; Rosenfield, Philip
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    Chromospheric activity, lithium and radial velocities of single late-type stars possible members of young moving groups
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    HATS-6b: A WARM SATURN TRANSITING AN EARLY M DWARF STAR, AND A SET OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZING K AND M DWARF PLANET HOSTS
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    A new extensive library of PHOENIX stellar atmospheres and synthetic spectra
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    A major upgrade of the VALD database
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    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Nine new double-line spectroscopic binary stars
    journal, November 2018


    Improving PARSEC models for very low mass stars
    journal, September 2014

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    Near-Infrared Metallicities, Radial Velocities, and Spectral Types for 447 Nearby m Dwarfs
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    M Dwarf Metallicities and Giant Planet Occurrence: Ironing out Uncertainties and Systematics
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    The CARMENES Search for Exoplanets around M Dwarfs: A Low-mass Planet in the Temperate Zone of the Nearby K2-18
    journal, May 2018

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    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy★
    journal, July 2018


    Chemical Abundances of M-Dwarfs from the Apogee Survey. I. The Exoplanet Hosting Stars Kepler-138 and Kepler-186
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    Fundamental M-dwarf parameters from high-resolution spectra using PHOENIX ACES models: I. Parameter accuracy and benchmark stars
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    Barycentric Corrections at 1 cm s -1 for Precise Doppler Velocities
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    The M dwarf planet search programme at the ESO VLT + UVES: A search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of M dwarfs
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    Stellar parameters of early-M dwarfs from ratios of spectral features at optical wavelengths
    journal, May 2015


    A fast operator perturbation method for the solution of the special relativistic equation of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry
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    Evolutionary Models for Ultracool Dwarfs
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    • Fernandes, Catarina S.; Van Grootel, Valérie; Salmon, Sébastian J. A. J.
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    Exploring the stellar properties of M dwarfs with high-resolution spectroscopy from the optical to the near-infrared
    journal, December 2018


    Gliese 49: activity evolution and detection of a super-Earth: A HADES and CARMENES collaboration
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    Spectroscopic orbits of nearby stars
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    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: The He I triplet at 10830 Å across the M dwarf sequence
    journal, November 2019


    Bias and robustness of eccentricity estimates from radial velocity data
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    • Hara, Nathan C.; Boué, G.; Laskar, J.
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    Dynamical interactions in the planetary system GJ4276
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    Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. V. Intensification and Saturation of M-dwarf Absorption Lines with Rossby Number
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