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Title: Closure Relations of Gamma-Ray Bursts in High Energy Emission

Abstract

The synchrotron external shock model predicts the evolution of the spectral (β) and temporal (α) indices during the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow for different environmental density profiles, electron spectral indices, electron cooling regimes, and regions of the spectrum. We review the relationship between α and β, the so-called "closure relations" with GRBs detected by Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) from 2008 August to 2018 August. The spectral and temporal indices for the >100 MeV emission from the Fermi-LAT as determined in the Second Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog (2FLGC) are used in this work. We select GRBs whose spectral and temporal indices are well constrained (58 long-duration GRBs and 1 short-duration GRBs) and classify each GRB into the best-matched relation. As a result, we found that a number of GRBs require a very small fraction of the total energy density contained in the magnetic field (ϵ B ≲ 10 –7). The estimated mean and standard deviation of electron spectral index p are 2.40 and 0.44, respectively. The GRBs satisfying a closure relation of the slow cooling tend to have a softer p value compared to those of the fast cooling. Furthermore, the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of the two p distributions from themore » fast and slow coolings rejects a hypothesis that the two distributions are drawn from the single reference distribution with a significance of 3.2σ. Lastly, the uniform density medium is preferred over the medium that decreases like the inverse of distance squared for long-duration GRBs.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]
  1. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  3. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Korea Astronomy and Space Science Inst., Daejeon (Korea)
  4. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  5. Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
  6. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1577322
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 883; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma-ray burst: general

Citation Formats

Tak, Donggeun, Omodei, Nicola, Lucas Uhm, Z., Racusin, Judith, Asano, Katsuaki, and McEnery, Julie. Closure Relations of Gamma-Ray Bursts in High Energy Emission. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab3982.
Tak, Donggeun, Omodei, Nicola, Lucas Uhm, Z., Racusin, Judith, Asano, Katsuaki, & McEnery, Julie. Closure Relations of Gamma-Ray Bursts in High Energy Emission. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab3982.
Tak, Donggeun, Omodei, Nicola, Lucas Uhm, Z., Racusin, Judith, Asano, Katsuaki, and McEnery, Julie. Fri . "Closure Relations of Gamma-Ray Bursts in High Energy Emission". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab3982.
@article{osti_1577322,
title = {Closure Relations of Gamma-Ray Bursts in High Energy Emission},
author = {Tak, Donggeun and Omodei, Nicola and Lucas Uhm, Z. and Racusin, Judith and Asano, Katsuaki and McEnery, Julie},
abstractNote = {The synchrotron external shock model predicts the evolution of the spectral (β) and temporal (α) indices during the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow for different environmental density profiles, electron spectral indices, electron cooling regimes, and regions of the spectrum. We review the relationship between α and β, the so-called "closure relations" with GRBs detected by Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) from 2008 August to 2018 August. The spectral and temporal indices for the >100 MeV emission from the Fermi-LAT as determined in the Second Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog (2FLGC) are used in this work. We select GRBs whose spectral and temporal indices are well constrained (58 long-duration GRBs and 1 short-duration GRBs) and classify each GRB into the best-matched relation. As a result, we found that a number of GRBs require a very small fraction of the total energy density contained in the magnetic field (ϵ B ≲ 10–7). The estimated mean and standard deviation of electron spectral index p are 2.40 and 0.44, respectively. The GRBs satisfying a closure relation of the slow cooling tend to have a softer p value compared to those of the fast cooling. Furthermore, the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of the two p distributions from the fast and slow coolings rejects a hypothesis that the two distributions are drawn from the single reference distribution with a significance of 3.2σ. Lastly, the uniform density medium is preferred over the medium that decreases like the inverse of distance squared for long-duration GRBs.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab3982},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 883,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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