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Title: Recognition of the β-lactam carboxylate triggers acylation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae penicillin-binding protein 2

Abstract

Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) has become a major threat to human health. The primary mechanism by which N. gonorrhoeae becomes resistant to ESCs is by acquiring a mosaic penA allele, encoding penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) variants containing up to 62 mutations compared with WT, of which a subset contribute to resistance. To interpret molecular mechanisms underpinning cephalosporin resistance, it is necessary to know how PBP2 is acylated by ESCs. In this work, we report the crystal structures of the transpeptidase domain of WT PBP2 in complex with cefixime and ceftriaxone, along with structures of PBP2 in the apo form and with a phosphate ion bound in the active site at resolutions of 1–7-1.9 Å. These structures reveal that acylation of PBP2 by ESCs is accompanied by rotation of the Thr-498 side chain in the KTG motif to contact the cephalosporin carboxylate, twisting of the β3 strand to form the oxyanion hole, and rolling of the β3–β4 loop toward the active site. Recognition of the cephalosporin carboxylate appears to be the key trigger for formation of an acylation-competent state of PBP2. The structures also begin to explain the impact of mutations implicated in ESC resistance. In particular,more » a G545S mutation may hinder twisting of β3 because its side chain hydroxyl forms a hydrogen bond with Thr-498. Overall, our data suggest that acylation is initiated by conformational changes elicited or trapped by binding of ESCs and that these movements are restricted by mutations associated with resistance against ESCs.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)
  2. Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Institutes of Health (NIH)
OSTI Identifier:
1577153
Grant/Contract Number:  
GM066861; U19 AI113170
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 294; Journal Issue: 38; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9258
Publisher:
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; antibiotic action; bacteria; crystal structure; peptidoglycan; protein structure; acylation mechanism; cephalosporin resistance; conformational changes; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; penicillin-binding protein

Citation Formats

Singh, Avinash, Tomberg, Joshua, Nicholas, Robert A., and Davies, Christopher. Recognition of the β-lactam carboxylate triggers acylation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae penicillin-binding protein 2. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.ra119.009942.
Singh, Avinash, Tomberg, Joshua, Nicholas, Robert A., & Davies, Christopher. Recognition of the β-lactam carboxylate triggers acylation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae penicillin-binding protein 2. United States. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.ra119.009942
Singh, Avinash, Tomberg, Joshua, Nicholas, Robert A., and Davies, Christopher. Tue . "Recognition of the β-lactam carboxylate triggers acylation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae penicillin-binding protein 2". United States. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.ra119.009942. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1577153.
@article{osti_1577153,
title = {Recognition of the β-lactam carboxylate triggers acylation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae penicillin-binding protein 2},
author = {Singh, Avinash and Tomberg, Joshua and Nicholas, Robert A. and Davies, Christopher},
abstractNote = {Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) has become a major threat to human health. The primary mechanism by which N. gonorrhoeae becomes resistant to ESCs is by acquiring a mosaic penA allele, encoding penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) variants containing up to 62 mutations compared with WT, of which a subset contribute to resistance. To interpret molecular mechanisms underpinning cephalosporin resistance, it is necessary to know how PBP2 is acylated by ESCs. In this work, we report the crystal structures of the transpeptidase domain of WT PBP2 in complex with cefixime and ceftriaxone, along with structures of PBP2 in the apo form and with a phosphate ion bound in the active site at resolutions of 1–7-1.9 Å. These structures reveal that acylation of PBP2 by ESCs is accompanied by rotation of the Thr-498 side chain in the KTG motif to contact the cephalosporin carboxylate, twisting of the β3 strand to form the oxyanion hole, and rolling of the β3–β4 loop toward the active site. Recognition of the cephalosporin carboxylate appears to be the key trigger for formation of an acylation-competent state of PBP2. The structures also begin to explain the impact of mutations implicated in ESC resistance. In particular, a G545S mutation may hinder twisting of β3 because its side chain hydroxyl forms a hydrogen bond with Thr-498. Overall, our data suggest that acylation is initiated by conformational changes elicited or trapped by binding of ESCs and that these movements are restricted by mutations associated with resistance against ESCs.},
doi = {10.1074/jbc.ra119.009942},
journal = {Journal of Biological Chemistry},
number = 38,
volume = 294,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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