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Title: Hyperspectral imaging of minerals in the longwave infrared: the use of laboratory directional-hemispherical reference measurements for field exploration data

Abstract

Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) continues to grow as a method for remote detection of vegetation, materials, minerals, and pure chemicals. We have used a longwave infrared (7.7 - 11.8 µm) imaging spectrometer in a static outdoor experiment to collect HSI data from 24 minerals and background materials to determine the efficacy with which HSI can remotely detect and distinguish both pure minerals and mineral mixtures at three solar angles (25°, 35°, and 45° relative to ground) as well as varying backgrounds and other sample effects. Measurements were obtained separately for the minerals and materials mounted directly both on a bare plywood board and a plywood board coated with aluminum foil: 19 powders (3 mixtures and 16 pure mineral powders) held in polyethylene bottle lids as well as 5 samples in rock form were taped directly to the boards. The primary goal of the experiment was to demonstrate that a longwave infrared (LWIR) library of solids and minerals collected as directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra in the laboratory can be used directly for HSI field identification. Prior to the experiment, all 24 mineral/inorganic samples were measured in the laboratory using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) equipped with a gold-coated IR integrating sphere; themore » spectra were assimilated as part of a larger reference library of 21 pure minerals, 3 mixtures, and the polyethylene lid. Principal components analysis (PCA) with mean-centering was used in an exploratory analysis of the HSI images and showed that for the aluminum coated board, the first principal component captured the difference between signal that resembled a blackbody and the highly reflective aluminum background. In contrast, principal components PC 2, 3, and 4 were able to discriminate the materials including phosphates, sulfates, silicates, carbonates, and the mixtures. Results from generalized least squares target detection clearly showed that laboratory reference spectra of minerals could be utilized as targets with high fidelity for field detection, both for pure and mixed samples.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Eigenvector Research, Inc., Manson, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1576232
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-142826
Journal ID: ISSN 1931-3195
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 03; Journal ID: ISSN 1931-3195
Publisher:
SPIE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; hyperspectral imaging; long-wave infrared; minerals; principal component analysis; directional hemispherical reflectance; particle size; infrared

Citation Formats

Myers, Tanya L., Johnson, Timothy J., Gallagher, Neal B., Bernacki, Bruce E., Beiswenger, Toya N., Szecsody, James E., Tonkyn, Russell G., Bradley, Ashley M., Su, Yin -Fong, and Danby, Tyler O. Hyperspectral imaging of minerals in the longwave infrared: the use of laboratory directional-hemispherical reference measurements for field exploration data. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1117/1.JRS.13.034527.
Myers, Tanya L., Johnson, Timothy J., Gallagher, Neal B., Bernacki, Bruce E., Beiswenger, Toya N., Szecsody, James E., Tonkyn, Russell G., Bradley, Ashley M., Su, Yin -Fong, & Danby, Tyler O. Hyperspectral imaging of minerals in the longwave infrared: the use of laboratory directional-hemispherical reference measurements for field exploration data. United States. doi:10.1117/1.JRS.13.034527.
Myers, Tanya L., Johnson, Timothy J., Gallagher, Neal B., Bernacki, Bruce E., Beiswenger, Toya N., Szecsody, James E., Tonkyn, Russell G., Bradley, Ashley M., Su, Yin -Fong, and Danby, Tyler O. Mon . "Hyperspectral imaging of minerals in the longwave infrared: the use of laboratory directional-hemispherical reference measurements for field exploration data". United States. doi:10.1117/1.JRS.13.034527. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1576232.
@article{osti_1576232,
title = {Hyperspectral imaging of minerals in the longwave infrared: the use of laboratory directional-hemispherical reference measurements for field exploration data},
author = {Myers, Tanya L. and Johnson, Timothy J. and Gallagher, Neal B. and Bernacki, Bruce E. and Beiswenger, Toya N. and Szecsody, James E. and Tonkyn, Russell G. and Bradley, Ashley M. and Su, Yin -Fong and Danby, Tyler O.},
abstractNote = {Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) continues to grow as a method for remote detection of vegetation, materials, minerals, and pure chemicals. We have used a longwave infrared (7.7 - 11.8 µm) imaging spectrometer in a static outdoor experiment to collect HSI data from 24 minerals and background materials to determine the efficacy with which HSI can remotely detect and distinguish both pure minerals and mineral mixtures at three solar angles (25°, 35°, and 45° relative to ground) as well as varying backgrounds and other sample effects. Measurements were obtained separately for the minerals and materials mounted directly both on a bare plywood board and a plywood board coated with aluminum foil: 19 powders (3 mixtures and 16 pure mineral powders) held in polyethylene bottle lids as well as 5 samples in rock form were taped directly to the boards. The primary goal of the experiment was to demonstrate that a longwave infrared (LWIR) library of solids and minerals collected as directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra in the laboratory can be used directly for HSI field identification. Prior to the experiment, all 24 mineral/inorganic samples were measured in the laboratory using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) equipped with a gold-coated IR integrating sphere; the spectra were assimilated as part of a larger reference library of 21 pure minerals, 3 mixtures, and the polyethylene lid. Principal components analysis (PCA) with mean-centering was used in an exploratory analysis of the HSI images and showed that for the aluminum coated board, the first principal component captured the difference between signal that resembled a blackbody and the highly reflective aluminum background. In contrast, principal components PC 2, 3, and 4 were able to discriminate the materials including phosphates, sulfates, silicates, carbonates, and the mixtures. Results from generalized least squares target detection clearly showed that laboratory reference spectra of minerals could be utilized as targets with high fidelity for field detection, both for pure and mixed samples.},
doi = {10.1117/1.JRS.13.034527},
journal = {Journal of Applied Remote Sensing},
number = 03,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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