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Title: Investigating the multiwavelength behaviour of the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 during 2013–2017

Abstract

ABSTRACT We present a multiwavelength study of the flat-spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 during 2013–2017. We use radio-to-optical data obtained by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope, 15 GHz data from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, 91 and 103 GHz data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, near-infrared data from the Rapid Eye Monitor telescope, as well as data from the Swift (optical-UV and X-rays) and Fermi (γ-rays) satellites to study flux and spectral variability and the correlation between flux changes at different wavelengths. Unprecedented γ-ray flaring activity was observed during 2016 November–2017 February, with four major outbursts. A peak flux of (2158 ± 63) × 10−8 ph cm−2 s−1, corresponding to a luminosity of (2.2 ± 0.1) × 1050 erg s−1, was reached on 2016 December 28. These four γ-ray outbursts have corresponding events in the near-infrared, optical, and UV bands, with the peaks observed at the same time. A general agreement between X-ray and γ-ray activity is found. The γ-ray flux variations show a general, strong correlation with the optical ones with no time lag between the two bands and a comparable variability amplitude. This γ-ray/optical relationship is in agreement with the geometrical model that has successfully explained the low-energy flux and spectral behaviour, suggesting that the long-term fluxmore » variations are mainly due to changes in the Doppler factor produced by variations of the viewing angle of the emitting regions. The difference in behaviour between radio and higher energy emission would be ascribed to different viewing angles of the jet regions producing their emission.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [7];  [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [7];  [11];  [2];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [16] more »;  [17];  [8];  [5];  [18];  [8];  [4];  [17];  [4];  [19];  [20];  [8];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [24];  [25];  [19];  [26];  [27];  [25];  [28];  [29];  [19];  [19];  [3];  [15];  [24];  [24];  [30];  [31];  [8];  [6];  [10];  [18];  [4];  [32];  [19];  [7];  [29];  [25];  [33];  [7];  [8];  [3];  [34];  [3];  [35];  [3];  [36];  [37];  [30];  [38]; ORCiD logo [15];  [19];  [6];  [25];  [39];  [6];  [40];  [21];  [6];  [41];  [42];  [41];  [19];  [19]; ORCiD logo [19];  [16];  [43];  [44]; ORCiD logo [45];  [46];  [45];  [47]; ORCiD logo [45];  [43];  [48];  [49];  [50] « less
  1. INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
  2. INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via P. Torinese, I- Torino, Italy
  3. Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), La Laguna, E-38200 Tenerife, Spain, Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain
  4. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada, Spain
  5. Pulkovo Observatory, 196140 St. Petersburg, Russia
  6. Institute of Astronomy and NAO, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
  7. Crimean Astrophysical Observatory RAS, P/O Nauchny 298409, Russia
  8. Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México
  9. Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), La Laguna, E-38200 Tenerife, Spain, Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain, INAF, TNG Fundación Galileo Galilei, E-38712 La Palma, Spain
  10. Faculty of Physics, Department of Astronomy, University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
  11. Osservatorio Astronomico della Regione Autonoma Valle d’Aosta, I-11020 Nus, Italy
  12. INAF, TNG Fundación Galileo Galilei, E-38712 La Palma, Spain, EPT Observatories, Tijarafe, E-38780 La Palma, Spain
  13. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada, Spain, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, D–53121 Bonn, Germany
  14. Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, E-38205 Tenerife, Spain, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
  15. Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan
  16. Astronomical Observatory, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
  17. INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
  18. Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Maidanak Observatory, Tashkent 100052, Uzbekistan
  19. Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg, Russia
  20. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
  21. Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK
  22. School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute For Advanced Studies, Ireland
  23. Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg, Russia, Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
  24. Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
  25. Abastumani Observatory, Mt. Kanobili, 0301 Abastumani, Georgia
  26. NNLOT, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan, Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  27. Abastumani Observatory, Mt. Kanobili, 0301 Abastumani, Georgia, Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory, Kazan Federal University, 422526 Tatarstan, Russia, Landessternwarte, Zentrum fr Astronomie der Universitt Heidelberg, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany, Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  28. Aalto University Metsähovi Radio Observatory, FI-02540 Kylmälä, Finland, Aalto University Dept of Electronics and Nanoengineering, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
  29. Pulkovo Observatory, 196140 St. Petersburg, Russia, Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg, Russia
  30. Astronomical Institute, Osaka Kyoiku University, Osaka 582-8582, Japan
  31. UCD School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
  32. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
  33. Michael Adrian Observatorium, Astronomie Stiftung Trebur, D-65468 Trebur, Germany, University of Applied Sciences, Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, D-61169 Friedberg, Germany
  34. Command Module Observatory, Tempe AZ, USA
  35. Nordic Optical Telescope, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
  36. Osservatorio Astronomico Sirio, I-70013 Castellana Grotte, Italy
  37. LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France
  38. Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80217-3364, USA
  39. Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 85751, USA
  40. Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
  41. Aalto University Metsähovi Radio Observatory, FI-02540 Kylmälä, Finland
  42. Instituto de Radio Astronomía Milimétrica, E-18012 Granada, Spain
  43. (
  44. Finnish Center for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland, Aalto University Metshovi Radio Observatory, Metshovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylmälä, Finland
  45. Owens Valley Radio Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
  46. Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
  47. Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile
  48. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, China, Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya St, Kazan 420044, Russia
  49. Special Astrophysical Observatory of RAS, Nizhnij Arkhyz 369167, Russia
  50. Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya St, Kazan 420044, Russia, Special Astrophysical Observatory of RAS, Nizhnij Arkhyz 369167, Russia
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1576016
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 490 Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

D’Ammando, F., Raiteri, C. M., Villata, M., Acosta-Pulido, J. A., Agudo, I., Arkharov, A. A., Bachev, R., Baida, G. V., Benítez, E., Borman, G. A., Boschin, W., Bozhilov, V., Butuzova, M. S., Calcidese, P., Carnerero, M. I., Carosati, D., Casadio, C., Castro-Segura, N., Chen, W-P, Damljanovic, G., Di Paola, A., Echevarría, J., Efimova, N. V., Ehgamberdiev, Sh A., Espinosa, C., Fuentes, A., Giunta, A., Gómez, J. L., Grishina, T. S., Gurwell, M. A., Hiriart, D., Jermak, H., Jordan, B., Jorstad, S. G., Joshi, M., Kimeridze, G. N., Kopatskaya, E. N., Kuratov, K., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Lázaro, C., Lin, C. S., Malmrose, M. P., Marscher, A. P., Matsumoto, K., McBreen, B., Michel, R., Mihov, B., Minev, M., Mirzaqulov, D. O., Molina, S. N., Moody, J. W., Morozova, D. A., Nazarov, S. V., Nikiforova, A. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Ohlert, J. M., Okhmat, N., Ovcharov, E., Pinna, F., Polakis, T. A., Protasio, C., Pursimo, T., Redondo-Lorenzo, F. J., Rizzi, N., Rodriguez-Coira, G., Sadakane, K., Sadun, A. C., Samal, M. R., Savchenko, S. S., Semkov, E., Sigua, L., Skiff, B. A., Slavcheva-Mihova, L., Smith, P. S., Steele, I. A., Strigachev, A., Tammi, J., Thum, C., Tornikoski, M., Troitskaya, Yu V., Troitsky, I. S., Vasilyev, A. A., Vince, O., the WEBT Collaboration), Hovatta, T., Kiehlmann, S., Max-Moerbeck, W., Readhead, A. C. S., Reeves, R., Pearson, T. J., the OVRO Team), Mufakharov, T., Sotnikova, Yu V., and Mingaliev, M. G. Investigating the multiwavelength behaviour of the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 during 2013–2017. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2792.
D’Ammando, F., Raiteri, C. M., Villata, M., Acosta-Pulido, J. A., Agudo, I., Arkharov, A. A., Bachev, R., Baida, G. V., Benítez, E., Borman, G. A., Boschin, W., Bozhilov, V., Butuzova, M. S., Calcidese, P., Carnerero, M. I., Carosati, D., Casadio, C., Castro-Segura, N., Chen, W-P, Damljanovic, G., Di Paola, A., Echevarría, J., Efimova, N. V., Ehgamberdiev, Sh A., Espinosa, C., Fuentes, A., Giunta, A., Gómez, J. L., Grishina, T. S., Gurwell, M. A., Hiriart, D., Jermak, H., Jordan, B., Jorstad, S. G., Joshi, M., Kimeridze, G. N., Kopatskaya, E. N., Kuratov, K., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Lázaro, C., Lin, C. S., Malmrose, M. P., Marscher, A. P., Matsumoto, K., McBreen, B., Michel, R., Mihov, B., Minev, M., Mirzaqulov, D. O., Molina, S. N., Moody, J. W., Morozova, D. A., Nazarov, S. V., Nikiforova, A. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Ohlert, J. M., Okhmat, N., Ovcharov, E., Pinna, F., Polakis, T. A., Protasio, C., Pursimo, T., Redondo-Lorenzo, F. J., Rizzi, N., Rodriguez-Coira, G., Sadakane, K., Sadun, A. C., Samal, M. R., Savchenko, S. S., Semkov, E., Sigua, L., Skiff, B. A., Slavcheva-Mihova, L., Smith, P. S., Steele, I. A., Strigachev, A., Tammi, J., Thum, C., Tornikoski, M., Troitskaya, Yu V., Troitsky, I. S., Vasilyev, A. A., Vince, O., the WEBT Collaboration), Hovatta, T., Kiehlmann, S., Max-Moerbeck, W., Readhead, A. C. S., Reeves, R., Pearson, T. J., the OVRO Team), Mufakharov, T., Sotnikova, Yu V., & Mingaliev, M. G. Investigating the multiwavelength behaviour of the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 during 2013–2017. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2792.
D’Ammando, F., Raiteri, C. M., Villata, M., Acosta-Pulido, J. A., Agudo, I., Arkharov, A. A., Bachev, R., Baida, G. V., Benítez, E., Borman, G. A., Boschin, W., Bozhilov, V., Butuzova, M. S., Calcidese, P., Carnerero, M. I., Carosati, D., Casadio, C., Castro-Segura, N., Chen, W-P, Damljanovic, G., Di Paola, A., Echevarría, J., Efimova, N. V., Ehgamberdiev, Sh A., Espinosa, C., Fuentes, A., Giunta, A., Gómez, J. L., Grishina, T. S., Gurwell, M. A., Hiriart, D., Jermak, H., Jordan, B., Jorstad, S. G., Joshi, M., Kimeridze, G. N., Kopatskaya, E. N., Kuratov, K., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Lázaro, C., Lin, C. S., Malmrose, M. P., Marscher, A. P., Matsumoto, K., McBreen, B., Michel, R., Mihov, B., Minev, M., Mirzaqulov, D. O., Molina, S. N., Moody, J. W., Morozova, D. A., Nazarov, S. V., Nikiforova, A. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Ohlert, J. M., Okhmat, N., Ovcharov, E., Pinna, F., Polakis, T. A., Protasio, C., Pursimo, T., Redondo-Lorenzo, F. J., Rizzi, N., Rodriguez-Coira, G., Sadakane, K., Sadun, A. C., Samal, M. R., Savchenko, S. S., Semkov, E., Sigua, L., Skiff, B. A., Slavcheva-Mihova, L., Smith, P. S., Steele, I. A., Strigachev, A., Tammi, J., Thum, C., Tornikoski, M., Troitskaya, Yu V., Troitsky, I. S., Vasilyev, A. A., Vince, O., the WEBT Collaboration), Hovatta, T., Kiehlmann, S., Max-Moerbeck, W., Readhead, A. C. S., Reeves, R., Pearson, T. J., the OVRO Team), Mufakharov, T., Sotnikova, Yu V., and Mingaliev, M. G. Wed . "Investigating the multiwavelength behaviour of the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 during 2013–2017". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2792.
@article{osti_1576016,
title = {Investigating the multiwavelength behaviour of the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 during 2013–2017},
author = {D’Ammando, F. and Raiteri, C. M. and Villata, M. and Acosta-Pulido, J. A. and Agudo, I. and Arkharov, A. A. and Bachev, R. and Baida, G. V. and Benítez, E. and Borman, G. A. and Boschin, W. and Bozhilov, V. and Butuzova, M. S. and Calcidese, P. and Carnerero, M. I. and Carosati, D. and Casadio, C. and Castro-Segura, N. and Chen, W-P and Damljanovic, G. and Di Paola, A. and Echevarría, J. and Efimova, N. V. and Ehgamberdiev, Sh A. and Espinosa, C. and Fuentes, A. and Giunta, A. and Gómez, J. L. and Grishina, T. S. and Gurwell, M. A. and Hiriart, D. and Jermak, H. and Jordan, B. and Jorstad, S. G. and Joshi, M. and Kimeridze, G. N. and Kopatskaya, E. N. and Kuratov, K. and Kurtanidze, O. M. and Kurtanidze, S. O. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Larionov, V. M. and Larionova, E. G. and Larionova, L. V. and Lázaro, C. and Lin, C. S. and Malmrose, M. P. and Marscher, A. P. and Matsumoto, K. and McBreen, B. and Michel, R. and Mihov, B. and Minev, M. and Mirzaqulov, D. O. and Molina, S. N. and Moody, J. W. and Morozova, D. A. and Nazarov, S. V. and Nikiforova, A. A. and Nikolashvili, M. G. and Ohlert, J. M. and Okhmat, N. and Ovcharov, E. and Pinna, F. and Polakis, T. A. and Protasio, C. and Pursimo, T. and Redondo-Lorenzo, F. J. and Rizzi, N. and Rodriguez-Coira, G. and Sadakane, K. and Sadun, A. C. and Samal, M. R. and Savchenko, S. S. and Semkov, E. and Sigua, L. and Skiff, B. A. and Slavcheva-Mihova, L. and Smith, P. S. and Steele, I. A. and Strigachev, A. and Tammi, J. and Thum, C. and Tornikoski, M. and Troitskaya, Yu V. and Troitsky, I. S. and Vasilyev, A. A. and Vince, O. and the WEBT Collaboration) and Hovatta, T. and Kiehlmann, S. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Reeves, R. and Pearson, T. J. and the OVRO Team) and Mufakharov, T. and Sotnikova, Yu V. and Mingaliev, M. G.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT We present a multiwavelength study of the flat-spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 during 2013–2017. We use radio-to-optical data obtained by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope, 15 GHz data from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, 91 and 103 GHz data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, near-infrared data from the Rapid Eye Monitor telescope, as well as data from the Swift (optical-UV and X-rays) and Fermi (γ-rays) satellites to study flux and spectral variability and the correlation between flux changes at different wavelengths. Unprecedented γ-ray flaring activity was observed during 2016 November–2017 February, with four major outbursts. A peak flux of (2158 ± 63) × 10−8 ph cm−2 s−1, corresponding to a luminosity of (2.2 ± 0.1) × 1050 erg s−1, was reached on 2016 December 28. These four γ-ray outbursts have corresponding events in the near-infrared, optical, and UV bands, with the peaks observed at the same time. A general agreement between X-ray and γ-ray activity is found. The γ-ray flux variations show a general, strong correlation with the optical ones with no time lag between the two bands and a comparable variability amplitude. This γ-ray/optical relationship is in agreement with the geometrical model that has successfully explained the low-energy flux and spectral behaviour, suggesting that the long-term flux variations are mainly due to changes in the Doppler factor produced by variations of the viewing angle of the emitting regions. The difference in behaviour between radio and higher energy emission would be ascribed to different viewing angles of the jet regions producing their emission.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2792},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 490,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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Agn jet Kinetic Power and the Energy Budget of Radio Galaxy Lobes
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THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE MISSION
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The transition between BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars: FSRQs and BL Lacs
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Behaviour of the Blazar CTA 102 during Two Giant Outbursts
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Unprecedented study of the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during flaring activity in March 2010
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The long-lasting activity of 3C 454.3: GASP-WEBT and satellite observations in 2008–2010 ⋆⋆⋆
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A new view on the M 87 jet origin: Turbulent loading leading to large-scale episodic wiggling
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The magnetic field structure in CTA 102 from high-resolution mm-VLBI observations during the flaring state in 2016–2017
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