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Title: GROWTH on S190814bv: Deep Synoptic Limits on the Optical/Near-infrared Counterpart to a Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger

Abstract

On 2019 August 14, the Advanced LIGO and Virgo interferometers detected the high-significance gravitational wave (GW) signal S190814bv. The GW data indicated that the event resulted from a neutron star–black hole (NSBH) merger, or potentially a low-mass binary BH merger. Due to the low false-alarm rate and the precise localization (23 deg 2 at 90%), S190814bv presented the community with the best opportunity yet to directly observe an optical/near-infrared counterpart to an NSBH merger. To search for potential counterparts, the GROWTH Collaboration performed real-time image subtraction on six nights of public Dark Energy Camera images acquired in the 3 weeks following the merger, covering >98% of the localization probability. Using a worldwide network of follow-up facilities, we systematically undertook spectroscopy and imaging of optical counterpart candidates. Combining these data with a photometric redshift catalog, we ruled out each candidate as the counterpart to S190814bv and placed deep, uniform limits on the optical emission associated with S190814bv. For the nearest consistent GW distance, radiative transfer simulations of NSBH mergers constrain the ejecta mass of S190814bv to be M ej < 0.04 M at polar viewing angles, or M ej < 0.03 M if the opacity is κ < 2more » cm 2g -1. Assuming a tidal deformability for the NS at the high end of the range compatible with GW170817 results, our limits would constrain the BH spin component aligned with the orbital momentum to be χ < 0.7 for mass ratios Q < 6, with weaker constraints for more compact NSs.« less

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Org.:
GROWTH Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1574354
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; HST-HF2-51408.001-A; 1545949
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 890; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Neutron stars; Binary stars; Gravitational wave sources; Gravitational waves; Transient sources; Black hole physics; Observational astronomy

Citation Formats

Andreoni, Igor, Goldstein, Daniel A., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nugent, Peter E., Zhou, Rongpu, Newman, Jeffrey A., Bulla, Mattia, Foucart, Francois, Hotokezaka, Kenta, Nakar, Ehud, Nissanke, Samaya, Raaijmakers, Geert, Bloom, Joshua S., De, Kishalay, Jencson, Jacob E., Ward, Charlotte, Ahumada, Tomás, Anand, Shreya, Buckley, David A. H., Caballero-García, Maria D., Castro-Tirado, Alberto J., Copperwheat, Christopher M., Coughlin, Michael W., Cenko, S. Bradley, Gromadzki, Mariusz, Hu, Youdong, Karambelkar, Viraj R., Perley, Daniel A., Sharma, Yashvi, Valeev, Azamat F., Cook, David O., Fremling, U. Christoffer, Kumar, Harsh, Taggart, Kirsty, Bagdasaryan, Ashot, Cooke, Jeff, Dahiwale, Aishwarya, Dhawan, Suhail, Dobie, Dougal, Gatkine, Pradip, Golkhou, V. Zach, Goobar, Ariel, Chaves, Andreas Guerra, Hankins, Matthew, Kaplan, David L., Kong, Albert K. H., Kool, Erik C., Mohite, Siddharth, Sollerman, Jesper, Tzanidakis, Anastasios, Webb, Sara, and Zhang, Keming. GROWTH on S190814bv: Deep Synoptic Limits on the Optical/Near-infrared Counterpart to a Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6a1b.
Andreoni, Igor, Goldstein, Daniel A., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nugent, Peter E., Zhou, Rongpu, Newman, Jeffrey A., Bulla, Mattia, Foucart, Francois, Hotokezaka, Kenta, Nakar, Ehud, Nissanke, Samaya, Raaijmakers, Geert, Bloom, Joshua S., De, Kishalay, Jencson, Jacob E., Ward, Charlotte, Ahumada, Tomás, Anand, Shreya, Buckley, David A. H., Caballero-García, Maria D., Castro-Tirado, Alberto J., Copperwheat, Christopher M., Coughlin, Michael W., Cenko, S. Bradley, Gromadzki, Mariusz, Hu, Youdong, Karambelkar, Viraj R., Perley, Daniel A., Sharma, Yashvi, Valeev, Azamat F., Cook, David O., Fremling, U. Christoffer, Kumar, Harsh, Taggart, Kirsty, Bagdasaryan, Ashot, Cooke, Jeff, Dahiwale, Aishwarya, Dhawan, Suhail, Dobie, Dougal, Gatkine, Pradip, Golkhou, V. Zach, Goobar, Ariel, Chaves, Andreas Guerra, Hankins, Matthew, Kaplan, David L., Kong, Albert K. H., Kool, Erik C., Mohite, Siddharth, Sollerman, Jesper, Tzanidakis, Anastasios, Webb, Sara, & Zhang, Keming. GROWTH on S190814bv: Deep Synoptic Limits on the Optical/Near-infrared Counterpart to a Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6a1b.
Andreoni, Igor, Goldstein, Daniel A., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nugent, Peter E., Zhou, Rongpu, Newman, Jeffrey A., Bulla, Mattia, Foucart, Francois, Hotokezaka, Kenta, Nakar, Ehud, Nissanke, Samaya, Raaijmakers, Geert, Bloom, Joshua S., De, Kishalay, Jencson, Jacob E., Ward, Charlotte, Ahumada, Tomás, Anand, Shreya, Buckley, David A. H., Caballero-García, Maria D., Castro-Tirado, Alberto J., Copperwheat, Christopher M., Coughlin, Michael W., Cenko, S. Bradley, Gromadzki, Mariusz, Hu, Youdong, Karambelkar, Viraj R., Perley, Daniel A., Sharma, Yashvi, Valeev, Azamat F., Cook, David O., Fremling, U. Christoffer, Kumar, Harsh, Taggart, Kirsty, Bagdasaryan, Ashot, Cooke, Jeff, Dahiwale, Aishwarya, Dhawan, Suhail, Dobie, Dougal, Gatkine, Pradip, Golkhou, V. Zach, Goobar, Ariel, Chaves, Andreas Guerra, Hankins, Matthew, Kaplan, David L., Kong, Albert K. H., Kool, Erik C., Mohite, Siddharth, Sollerman, Jesper, Tzanidakis, Anastasios, Webb, Sara, and Zhang, Keming. Thu . "GROWTH on S190814bv: Deep Synoptic Limits on the Optical/Near-infrared Counterpart to a Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6a1b.
@article{osti_1574354,
title = {GROWTH on S190814bv: Deep Synoptic Limits on the Optical/Near-infrared Counterpart to a Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger},
author = {Andreoni, Igor and Goldstein, Daniel A. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Nugent, Peter E. and Zhou, Rongpu and Newman, Jeffrey A. and Bulla, Mattia and Foucart, Francois and Hotokezaka, Kenta and Nakar, Ehud and Nissanke, Samaya and Raaijmakers, Geert and Bloom, Joshua S. and De, Kishalay and Jencson, Jacob E. and Ward, Charlotte and Ahumada, Tomás and Anand, Shreya and Buckley, David A. H. and Caballero-García, Maria D. and Castro-Tirado, Alberto J. and Copperwheat, Christopher M. and Coughlin, Michael W. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Gromadzki, Mariusz and Hu, Youdong and Karambelkar, Viraj R. and Perley, Daniel A. and Sharma, Yashvi and Valeev, Azamat F. and Cook, David O. and Fremling, U. Christoffer and Kumar, Harsh and Taggart, Kirsty and Bagdasaryan, Ashot and Cooke, Jeff and Dahiwale, Aishwarya and Dhawan, Suhail and Dobie, Dougal and Gatkine, Pradip and Golkhou, V. Zach and Goobar, Ariel and Chaves, Andreas Guerra and Hankins, Matthew and Kaplan, David L. and Kong, Albert K. H. and Kool, Erik C. and Mohite, Siddharth and Sollerman, Jesper and Tzanidakis, Anastasios and Webb, Sara and Zhang, Keming},
abstractNote = {On 2019 August 14, the Advanced LIGO and Virgo interferometers detected the high-significance gravitational wave (GW) signal S190814bv. The GW data indicated that the event resulted from a neutron star–black hole (NSBH) merger, or potentially a low-mass binary BH merger. Due to the low false-alarm rate and the precise localization (23 deg2 at 90%), S190814bv presented the community with the best opportunity yet to directly observe an optical/near-infrared counterpart to an NSBH merger. To search for potential counterparts, the GROWTH Collaboration performed real-time image subtraction on six nights of public Dark Energy Camera images acquired in the 3 weeks following the merger, covering >98% of the localization probability. Using a worldwide network of follow-up facilities, we systematically undertook spectroscopy and imaging of optical counterpart candidates. Combining these data with a photometric redshift catalog, we ruled out each candidate as the counterpart to S190814bv and placed deep, uniform limits on the optical emission associated with S190814bv. For the nearest consistent GW distance, radiative transfer simulations of NSBH mergers constrain the ejecta mass of S190814bv to be M ej < 0.04 M ⊙ at polar viewing angles, or M ej < 0.03 M ⊙ if the opacity is κ < 2 cm2g-1. Assuming a tidal deformability for the NS at the high end of the range compatible with GW170817 results, our limits would constrain the BH spin component aligned with the orbital momentum to be χ < 0.7 for mass ratios Q < 6, with weaker constraints for more compact NSs.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab6a1b},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 890,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

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