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Title: System-level design studies for large rotors

Abstract

We examine the effect of rotor design choices on the power capture and structural loading of each major wind turbine component. A harmonic model for structural loading is derived from simulations using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) aeroelastic code FAST to reduce computational expense while evaluating design trade-offs for rotors with radii greater than 100 m. Design studies are performed, which focus on blade aerodynamic and structural parameters as well as different hub configurations and nacelle placements atop the tower. The effects of tower design and closed-loop control are also analyzed. Design loads are calculated according to the IEC design standards and used to create a mapping from the harmonic model of the loads and quantify the uncertainty of the transformation. Our design studies highlight both industry trends and innovative designs: we progress from a conventional, upwind, three-bladed rotor to a rotor with longer, more slender blades that is downwind and two-bladed. For a 13 MW design, we show that increasing the blade length by 25 m, while decreasing the induction factor of the rotor, increases annual energy capture by 11 % while constraining peak blade loads. A downwind, two-bladed rotor design is analyzed, with a focus on itsmore » ability to reduce peak blade loads by 10 % per 5° of cone angle and also reduce total blade mass. However, when compared to conventional, three-bladed, upwind designs, the peak main-bearing load of the upscaled, downwind, two-bladed rotor is increased by 280 %. Optimized teeter configurations and individual pitch control can reduce non-rotating damage equivalent loads by 45 % and 22 %, respectively, compared with fixed-hub designs.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering
  2. Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering
  3. Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  4. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
  5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States). National Wind Technology Center
  6. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States). National Wind Technology Center
  7. Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1574287
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-75419
Journal ID: ISSN 2366-7451
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Wind Energy Science (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Wind Energy Science (Online); Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2366-7451
Publisher:
European Wind Energy Association - Copernicus
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; 42 ENGINEERING; wind turbine design; systems engineering

Citation Formats

Zalkind, Daniel S., Ananda, Gavin K., Chetan, Mayank, Martin, Dana P., Bay, Christopher J., Johnson, Kathryn E., Loth, Eric, Griffith, D. Todd, Selig, Michael S., and Pao, Lucy Y. System-level design studies for large rotors. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.5194/wes-4-595-2019.
Zalkind, Daniel S., Ananda, Gavin K., Chetan, Mayank, Martin, Dana P., Bay, Christopher J., Johnson, Kathryn E., Loth, Eric, Griffith, D. Todd, Selig, Michael S., & Pao, Lucy Y. System-level design studies for large rotors. United States. doi:10.5194/wes-4-595-2019.
Zalkind, Daniel S., Ananda, Gavin K., Chetan, Mayank, Martin, Dana P., Bay, Christopher J., Johnson, Kathryn E., Loth, Eric, Griffith, D. Todd, Selig, Michael S., and Pao, Lucy Y. Mon . "System-level design studies for large rotors". United States. doi:10.5194/wes-4-595-2019. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1574287.
@article{osti_1574287,
title = {System-level design studies for large rotors},
author = {Zalkind, Daniel S. and Ananda, Gavin K. and Chetan, Mayank and Martin, Dana P. and Bay, Christopher J. and Johnson, Kathryn E. and Loth, Eric and Griffith, D. Todd and Selig, Michael S. and Pao, Lucy Y.},
abstractNote = {We examine the effect of rotor design choices on the power capture and structural loading of each major wind turbine component. A harmonic model for structural loading is derived from simulations using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) aeroelastic code FAST to reduce computational expense while evaluating design trade-offs for rotors with radii greater than 100 m. Design studies are performed, which focus on blade aerodynamic and structural parameters as well as different hub configurations and nacelle placements atop the tower. The effects of tower design and closed-loop control are also analyzed. Design loads are calculated according to the IEC design standards and used to create a mapping from the harmonic model of the loads and quantify the uncertainty of the transformation. Our design studies highlight both industry trends and innovative designs: we progress from a conventional, upwind, three-bladed rotor to a rotor with longer, more slender blades that is downwind and two-bladed. For a 13 MW design, we show that increasing the blade length by 25 m, while decreasing the induction factor of the rotor, increases annual energy capture by 11 % while constraining peak blade loads. A downwind, two-bladed rotor design is analyzed, with a focus on its ability to reduce peak blade loads by 10 % per 5° of cone angle and also reduce total blade mass. However, when compared to conventional, three-bladed, upwind designs, the peak main-bearing load of the upscaled, downwind, two-bladed rotor is increased by 280 %. Optimized teeter configurations and individual pitch control can reduce non-rotating damage equivalent loads by 45 % and 22 %, respectively, compared with fixed-hub designs.},
doi = {10.5194/wes-4-595-2019},
journal = {Wind Energy Science (Online)},
number = 4,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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