skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Strain-stress study of Al xGa 1–xN/AlN heterostructures on c-plane sapphire and related optical properties

Abstract

This work presents a systematic study of stress and strain of Al xGa 1-xN/AlN with composition ranging from GaN to AlN, grown on a c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, using synchrotron radiation high-resolution X-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping. The c-plane of the Al xGa 1-xN epitaxial layers exhibits compressive strain, while the alpha-plane exhibits tensile strain. The biaxial stress and strain are found to increase with increasing Al composition, although the lattice mismatch between the Al xGa 1-xN and the buffer layer AlN gets smaller. A reduction in the lateral coherence lengths and an increase in the edge and screw dislocations are seen as the Al xGa 1-xN composition is varied from GaN to AlN, exhibiting a clear dependence of the crystal properties of Al xGa 1-xN on the Al content. The bandgap of the epitaxial layers is slightly lower than predicted value due to a larger tensile strain effect on the alpha-axis compared to the compressive strain on the c-axis. Raman characteristics of the Al xGa 1-xN samples exhibit a shift in the phonon peaks with the Al composition. The effect of strain on the optical phonon energies of the epitaxial layers is also discussed

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [6];  [7]
  1. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Birck Nanotechnology Center; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States). Applied Materials Div.
  2. Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering
  3. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Birck Nanotechnology Center
  4. Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China). National Synchrotron Radiation Lab.; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source
  5. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source
  6. Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering; Kennesaw State Univ., Marietta, GA (United States). Southern Polytechnic College of Engineering and Engineering Technology
  7. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Materials Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1574136
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Feng, Yining, Saravade, Vishal, Chung, Ting -Fung, Dong, Yongqi, Zhou, Hua, Kucukgok, Bahadir, Ferguson, Ian T., and Lu, Na. Strain-stress study of AlxGa1–xN/AlN heterostructures on c-plane sapphire and related optical properties. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46628-4.
Feng, Yining, Saravade, Vishal, Chung, Ting -Fung, Dong, Yongqi, Zhou, Hua, Kucukgok, Bahadir, Ferguson, Ian T., & Lu, Na. Strain-stress study of AlxGa1–xN/AlN heterostructures on c-plane sapphire and related optical properties. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46628-4.
Feng, Yining, Saravade, Vishal, Chung, Ting -Fung, Dong, Yongqi, Zhou, Hua, Kucukgok, Bahadir, Ferguson, Ian T., and Lu, Na. Mon . "Strain-stress study of AlxGa1–xN/AlN heterostructures on c-plane sapphire and related optical properties". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46628-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1574136.
@article{osti_1574136,
title = {Strain-stress study of AlxGa1–xN/AlN heterostructures on c-plane sapphire and related optical properties},
author = {Feng, Yining and Saravade, Vishal and Chung, Ting -Fung and Dong, Yongqi and Zhou, Hua and Kucukgok, Bahadir and Ferguson, Ian T. and Lu, Na},
abstractNote = {This work presents a systematic study of stress and strain of AlxGa1-xN/AlN with composition ranging from GaN to AlN, grown on a c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, using synchrotron radiation high-resolution X-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping. The c-plane of the AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers exhibits compressive strain, while the alpha-plane exhibits tensile strain. The biaxial stress and strain are found to increase with increasing Al composition, although the lattice mismatch between the AlxGa1-xN and the buffer layer AlN gets smaller. A reduction in the lateral coherence lengths and an increase in the edge and screw dislocations are seen as the AlxGa1-xN composition is varied from GaN to AlN, exhibiting a clear dependence of the crystal properties of AlxGa1-xN on the Al content. The bandgap of the epitaxial layers is slightly lower than predicted value due to a larger tensile strain effect on the alpha-axis compared to the compressive strain on the c-axis. Raman characteristics of the AlxGa1-xN samples exhibit a shift in the phonon peaks with the Al composition. The effect of strain on the optical phonon energies of the epitaxial layers is also discussed},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-46628-4},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

III-nitrides for energy production: photovoltaic and thermoelectric applications
journal, June 2013


p-InGaN/AlGaN electron blocking layer for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes
journal, December 2012

  • Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Yi, Xiaoyan
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4773187

Structural and optical analyses of Al x Ga 1− x N thin films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition
journal, January 2015

  • Kucukgok, Bahadir; Lu, Na; Ferguson, Ian T.
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 54, Issue 2S
  • DOI: 10.7567/JJAP.54.02BA05

Thermopower Study of GaN-Based Materials for Next-Generation Thermoelectric Devices and Applications
journal, November 2010

  • Hurwitz, Elisa N.; Asghar, Muhammad; Melton, Andrew
  • Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 40, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11664-010-1416-9

AlGaN photonics: recent advances in materials and ultraviolet devices
journal, January 2018

  • Li, Dabing; Jiang, Ke; Sun, Xiaojuan
  • Advances in Optics and Photonics, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1364/AOP.10.000043

AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure Based Schottky Diode Sensors with ZnO Nanorods for Environmental Ammonia Monitoring Applications
journal, January 2018

  • Jung, Sunwoo; Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Ren, Fan
  • ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, Vol. 7, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0041807jss

Impurity Resonant States p-type Doping in Wide-Band-Gap Nitrides
journal, January 2016

  • Liu, Zhiqiang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Zhiguo
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep19537

Advantages of the AlGaN spacer in InAlN high-electron-mobility transistors grown using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy
journal, April 2016

  • Yamada, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Tetsuro; Kotani, Junji
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 55, Issue 5S
  • DOI: 10.7567/JJAP.55.05FK03

Advantages of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with AlGaN barriers
journal, January 2010

  • Chang, Jih-Yuan; Tsai, Miao-Chan; Kuo, Yen-Kuang
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.35.001368

Advantages of Blue LEDs With Graded-Composition AlGaN/GaN Superlattice EBL
journal, November 2013

  • Lin, Bing-Cheng; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Han, Hau-Vei
  • IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 25, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2013.2281068

The impact of mechanical stress on the degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors
journal, October 2013

  • Choi, Sukwon; Heller, Eric; Dorsey, Donald
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4826524

200nm deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlN
journal, November 2006

  • Li, J.; Fan, Z. Y.; Dahal, R.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2397021

Metal–Semiconductor–Metal AlN Mid-Ultraviolet Photodetectors Grown by Magnetron Reactive Sputtering Deposition
journal, June 2004

  • Chen, Lung-Chien; Fu, Ming-Song; Huang, In-Lin
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 43, Issue 6A
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.43.3353

Solar-blind AlGaN-based Schottky photodiodes with low noise and high detectivity
journal, October 2002

  • Biyikli, Necmi; Aytur, Orhan; Kimukin, Ibrahim
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 81, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1516856

A Comprehensive Review of Semiconductor Ultraviolet Photodetectors: From Thin Film to One-Dimensional Nanostructures
journal, August 2013

  • Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Sumiya, Masatomo
  • Sensors, Vol. 13, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.3390/s130810482

MOVPE growth conditions optimization for AlGaN/GaN/Si heterostructures with SiN and LT-AlN interlayers designed for HEMT applications
journal, January 2019

  • Wośko, Mateusz; Szymański, Tomasz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan
  • Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 30, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10854-019-00702-9

Stress evolution during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN
journal, January 1999

  • Hearne, S.; Chason, E.; Han, J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 74, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.123070

Strain analysis of InGaN/GaN multi quantum well LED structures
journal, June 2012

  • Şebnem Çetin, S.; Kemal Öztürk, M.; Özçelik, S.
  • Crystal Research and Technology
  • DOI: 10.1002/crat.201100222

Composition and temperature dependent optical properties of AlxGa1-xN alloy by spectroscopic ellipsometry
journal, November 2017


Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of high mobility AlGaN/GaN heterostructures
journal, November 1999

  • Keller, S.; Parish, G.; Fini, P. T.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 86, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.371602

Polarization effects, surface states, and the source of electrons in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors
journal, July 2000

  • Ibbetson, J. P.; Fini, P. T.; Ness, K. D.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.126940

X-ray diffraction of III-nitrides
journal, February 2009


Validity of Vegard’s rule for Al 1− x In x N (0.08  <   x   <  0.28) thin films grown on GaN templates
journal, April 2017

  • Magalhães, S.; Franco, N.; Watson, I. M.
  • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 50, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aa69dc

Growth of high quality n-Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 N thick films by MOCVD
journal, August 2016


Point-Defect Distribution and Transformation Near the Surfaces of AlGaN Films Grown by MOCVD
journal, March 2019

  • Liu, Ningyang; Wang, Qiao; Li, Bo
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 123, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b11807

Effect of stress on the Al composition evolution in AlGaN grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy
journal, April 2016

  • He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun
  • Applied Physics Express, Vol. 9, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.7567/APEX.9.051001

Mechanism of stress-driven composition evolution during hetero-epitaxy in a ternary AlGaN system
journal, April 2016

  • He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep25124

Nanoscale Electrostructural Characterization of Compositionally Graded Al x Ga 1– x N Heterostructures on GaN/Sapphire (0001) Substrate
journal, October 2015

  • Kuchuk, Andrian V.; Lytvyn, Petro M.; Li, Chen
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 7, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b07924

Local Strain and Crystalline Defects in GaN/AlGaN/GaN(0001) Heterostructures Induced by Compositionally Graded AlGaN Buried Layers
journal, November 2018

  • Stanchu, Hryhorii V.; Kuchuk, Andrian V.; Mazur, Yuriy I.
  • Crystal Growth & Design, Vol. 19, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.8b01267

Determination of the Al mole fraction and the band gap bowing of epitaxial AlxGa1−xN films
journal, September 1997

  • Angerer, H.; Brunner, D.; Freudenberg, F.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 71, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.119949

Morphology and X-Ray Diffraction Peak Widths of Aluminum Nitride Single Crystals Prepared by the Sublimation Method
journal, August 1997

  • Tanaka, Motoyuki; Nakahata, Seiji; Sogabe, Kouichi
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 36, Issue Part 2, No. 8B
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.36.L1062

Brillouin scattering study of bulk GaN
journal, June 1999

  • Yamaguchi, M.; Yagi, T.; Sota, T.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 85, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.370635

Strain effects on InxAl1−xN crystalline quality grown on GaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
journal, February 2010

  • Miao, Z. L.; Yu, T. J.; Xu, F. J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3305397

Strain and composition distributions in wurtzite InGaN/GaN layers extracted from x-ray reciprocal space mapping
journal, May 2002

  • Pereira, S.; Correia, M. R.; Pereira, E.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 80, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1481786

High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis of Al x Ga 1−x N/In x Ga 1−x N/GaN on sapphire multilayer structures: Theoretical, simulations, and experimental observations
journal, May 2014

  • Jana, Sanjay Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ghosh, Saptarsi
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4875382

Strain in AlGaN layer studied by Rutherford backscattering/channeling and x-ray diffraction
journal, January 1999

  • Wu, M. F.; Yao, Shude; Vantomme, A.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 17, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.590780

High-resolution x-ray diffraction strain-stress analysis of GaN/sapphire heterostructures
journal, May 2001

  • Harutyunyan, V. S.; Aivazyan, A. P.; Weber, E. R.
  • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 34, Issue 10A
  • DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/34/10A/308

Influence of stress on structural properties of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor layers grown on 150 mm diameter Si (111) substrate
journal, January 2013

  • Liu, H. F.; Dolmanan, S. B.; Zhang, L.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4774288

Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films
journal, December 1996


Elastic constants of gallium nitride
journal, March 1996

  • Polian, A.; Grimsditch, M.; Grzegory, I.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 79, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.361236

Vibrational Spectroscopy of Aluminum Nitride
journal, May 1993


Energy band bowing parameter in AlxGa1−xN alloys
journal, October 2002

  • Yun, Feng; Reshchikov, Michael A.; He, Lei
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 92, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1508420

Biaxial strain in AlxGa1−xN/GaN layers deposited on 6H-SiC
journal, July 1998


Composition dependence of optical phonon energies and Raman line broadening in hexagonal Al x Ga 1 x N alloys
journal, March 2002


Properties of GaN and related compounds studied by means of Raman scattering
journal, September 2002


Phonons in ternary group-III nitride alloys
journal, March 2000