skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Strain tolerance of two-dimensional crystal growth on curved surfaces

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) crystal growth over substrate features is fundamentally guided by the Gauss-Bonnet theorem, which mandates that rigid, planar crystals cannot conform to surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvature. Here, we reveal how topographic curvature of lithographically designed substrate features govern the strain and growth dynamics of triangular WS 2monolayer single crystals. Single crystals grow conformally without strain over deep trenches and other features with zero Gaussian curvature; however, features with nonzero Gaussian curvature can easily impart sufficient strain to initiate grain boundaries and fractured growth in different directions. Within a strain-tolerant regime, however, triangular single crystals can accommodate considerable (<1.1%) localized strain exerted by surface features that shift the bandgap up to 150 meV. Within this regime, the crystal growth accelerates in specific directions, which we describe using a growth model. Furthermore, these results present a previously unexplored strategy to strain-engineer the growth directions and optoelectronic properties of 2D crystals.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [6];  [3];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science
  2. Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China). College of Aerospace Engineering
  3. Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and NanoEngineering
  4. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  6. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1574020
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1607203
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Wang, Kai, Puretzky, Alexander A., Hu, Zhili, Srijanto, Bernadeta R., Li, Xufan, Gupta, Nitant, Yu, Henry, Tian, Mengkun, Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud, Gao, Xiang, Oyedele, Akinola, Rouleau, Christopher M., Eres, Gyula, Yakobson, Boris I., Yoon, Mina, Xiao, Kai, and Geohegan, David B. Strain tolerance of two-dimensional crystal growth on curved surfaces. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav4028.
Wang, Kai, Puretzky, Alexander A., Hu, Zhili, Srijanto, Bernadeta R., Li, Xufan, Gupta, Nitant, Yu, Henry, Tian, Mengkun, Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud, Gao, Xiang, Oyedele, Akinola, Rouleau, Christopher M., Eres, Gyula, Yakobson, Boris I., Yoon, Mina, Xiao, Kai, & Geohegan, David B. Strain tolerance of two-dimensional crystal growth on curved surfaces. United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav4028.
Wang, Kai, Puretzky, Alexander A., Hu, Zhili, Srijanto, Bernadeta R., Li, Xufan, Gupta, Nitant, Yu, Henry, Tian, Mengkun, Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud, Gao, Xiang, Oyedele, Akinola, Rouleau, Christopher M., Eres, Gyula, Yakobson, Boris I., Yoon, Mina, Xiao, Kai, and Geohegan, David B. Fri . "Strain tolerance of two-dimensional crystal growth on curved surfaces". United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav4028. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1574020.
@article{osti_1574020,
title = {Strain tolerance of two-dimensional crystal growth on curved surfaces},
author = {Wang, Kai and Puretzky, Alexander A. and Hu, Zhili and Srijanto, Bernadeta R. and Li, Xufan and Gupta, Nitant and Yu, Henry and Tian, Mengkun and Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud and Gao, Xiang and Oyedele, Akinola and Rouleau, Christopher M. and Eres, Gyula and Yakobson, Boris I. and Yoon, Mina and Xiao, Kai and Geohegan, David B.},
abstractNote = {Two-dimensional (2D) crystal growth over substrate features is fundamentally guided by the Gauss-Bonnet theorem, which mandates that rigid, planar crystals cannot conform to surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvature. Here, we reveal how topographic curvature of lithographically designed substrate features govern the strain and growth dynamics of triangular WS2monolayer single crystals. Single crystals grow conformally without strain over deep trenches and other features with zero Gaussian curvature; however, features with nonzero Gaussian curvature can easily impart sufficient strain to initiate grain boundaries and fractured growth in different directions. Within a strain-tolerant regime, however, triangular single crystals can accommodate considerable (<1.1%) localized strain exerted by surface features that shift the bandgap up to 150 meV. Within this regime, the crystal growth accelerates in specific directions, which we describe using a growth model. Furthermore, these results present a previously unexplored strategy to strain-engineer the growth directions and optoelectronic properties of 2D crystals.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aav4028},
journal = {Science Advances},
number = 5,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Stretching and Breaking of Ultrathin MoS 2
journal, November 2011

  • Bertolazzi, Simone; Brivio, Jacopo; Kis, Andras
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 5, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn203879f

Visualizing nanoscale excitonic relaxation properties of disordered edges and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide
journal, August 2015

  • Bao, Wei; Borys, Nicholas J.; Ko, Changhyun
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8993

Nonlinear elastic behavior of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide
journal, January 2013


Elastic bending modulus of single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ): finite thickness effect
journal, October 2013


A generalized field method for multiphase transformations using interface fields
journal, December 1999


Strain-engineered artificial atom as a broad-spectrum solar energy funnel
journal, November 2012


Tilt Grain Boundary Topology Induced by Substrate Topography
journal, August 2017


Strain-Induced Spatial and Spectral Isolation of Quantum Emitters in Mono- and Bilayer WSe 2
journal, October 2015


Interlayer Coupling in Twisted WSe 2 /WS 2 Bilayer Heterostructures Revealed by Optical Spectroscopy
journal, June 2016


Strain-induced direct–indirect bandgap transition and phonon modulation in monolayer WS2
journal, August 2015


Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors
journal, May 2015

  • He, Yu-Ming; Clark, Genevieve; Schaibley, John R.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.75

Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition
journal, November 2014

  • Liu, Zheng; Amani, Matin; Najmaei, Sina
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6246

Fast Parallel Algorithms for Short-Range Molecular Dynamics
journal, March 1995


Deformation Potentials and Mobilities in Non-Polar Crystals
journal, October 1950


Phonon bandgap engineering of strained monolayer MoS2
journal, January 2014


Optoelectronic crystal of artificial atoms in strain-textured molybdenum disulphide
journal, June 2015

  • Li, Hong; Contryman, Alex W.; Qian, Xiaofeng
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8381

Engineering Light Outcoupling in 2D Materials
journal, January 2015

  • Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 15, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl504632u

Visualization and analysis of atomistic simulation data with OVITO–the Open Visualization Tool
journal, December 2009


Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy
journal, April 2013

  • Berkdemir, Ayse; Gutiérrez, Humberto R.; Botello-Méndez, Andrés R.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep01755

Role of the Seeding Promoter in MoS 2 Growth by Chemical Vapor Deposition
journal, January 2014

  • Ling, Xi; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Yuxuan
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl4033704

Atomically Thin MoS2 A New Direct-Gap Semiconductor
journal, September 2010


Theory of Finite-Length Grain Boundaries of Controlled Misfit Angle in Two-Dimensional Materials
journal, August 2017


Magic Islands in Si/Si(111) Homoepitaxy
journal, July 1998

  • Voigtländer, Bert; Kästner, Martin; Šmilauer, Pavel
  • Physical Review Letters, Vol. 81, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.858

Optical imaging of strain in two-dimensional crystals
journal, February 2018


Deterministic strain-induced arrays of quantum emitters in a two-dimensional semiconductor
journal, May 2017

  • Branny, Artur; Kumar, Santosh; Proux, Raphaël
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15053

Strain engineering in semiconducting two-dimensional crystals
journal, July 2015

  • Roldán, Rafael; Castellanos-Gomez, Andrés; Cappelluti, Emmanuele
  • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 27, Issue 31
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/27/31/313201

Stress Induced Branching of Growing Crystals on Curved Surfaces
journal, April 2016


Control of biaxial strain in single-layer molybdenite using local thermal expansion of the substrate
journal, March 2015


Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials
journal, September 2017


Topochemistry of Bowtie- and Star-Shaped Metal Dichalcogenide Nanoisland Formation
journal, May 2016


Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2
journal, May 2015

  • Srivastava, Ajit; Sidler, Meinrad; Allain, Adrien V.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.60

Chemical vapor deposition growth of a periodic array of single-layer MoS 2 islands via lithographic patterning of an SiO 2 /Si substrate
journal, December 2015


Molecular dynamics simulations of single-layer molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ): Stillinger-Weber parametrization, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity
journal, August 2013

  • Jiang, Jin-Wu; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4818414