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Title: Orientation Relationships of Pure Tin on Single Crystal Germanium Substrates

Abstract

The limited number of independent β-Sn grain orientations resulting from the difficulty in nucleating β-Sn during solidification of Sn-based solders has a large effect on the resulting β-Sn grain size and, hence, on overall solder joint performance and reliability. This study analyzes the efficacy of Ge as a heterogeneous nucleation agent for β-Sn by observing the morphologies and orientation relationships of as-deposited, solid-state annealed, and liquid-state annealed pure Sn films on single crystal Ge (100), (110), and (111) substrates. Here, the results from scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction showed that the as-deposited Sn films all deposited with a Sn (001)|| z-axis texture, regardless of the underlying Ge substrate orientation. Solid-state annealing at 150 °C for 5 min did not result in significant dewetting of the Sn films, and the films maintained their as-deposited texture of Sn (001)|| z-axis, regardless of the underlying Ge substrate orientation. Liquid-state annealing at 235 °C for 1 min resulted is large-scale dewetting of the Sn films and re-orientation of the Sn films on the various Ge substrates. After solidification, the Ge (100) and (110) single crystal substrates produced patches of dewetted grains of the same orientation but there were no consistent Sn grainmore » textures after liquid-state annealing, suggesting no single orientation relationship. In contrast, solidification on Ge (111) single crystal substrates resulted in isolated grains with a single Sn film texture and an orientation relationship of (100) Sn∥(111) Ge and [100] Sn∥[110] Ge. Density Functional Theory simulations of the experimentally observed Ge (111) sample orientation relationship and the Ge/Sn cube-on-cube orientation relationship suggest favorable relative interfacial binding energies for both interface orientations.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Science Div.
  2. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Materials Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1573449
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-774079
Journal ID: ISSN 0361-5235; 966406
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Electronic Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Electronic Materials; Journal ID: ISSN 0361-5235
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Pb-free solder; β-Sn nucleation; β-Sn inoculation; electron backscatter diffraction

Citation Formats

Reeve, Thomas C., Reeve, Samuel Temple, and Handwerker, Carol A. Orientation Relationships of Pure Tin on Single Crystal Germanium Substrates. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1007/s11664-019-07640-6.
Reeve, Thomas C., Reeve, Samuel Temple, & Handwerker, Carol A. Orientation Relationships of Pure Tin on Single Crystal Germanium Substrates. United States. doi:10.1007/s11664-019-07640-6.
Reeve, Thomas C., Reeve, Samuel Temple, and Handwerker, Carol A. Tue . "Orientation Relationships of Pure Tin on Single Crystal Germanium Substrates". United States. doi:10.1007/s11664-019-07640-6.
@article{osti_1573449,
title = {Orientation Relationships of Pure Tin on Single Crystal Germanium Substrates},
author = {Reeve, Thomas C. and Reeve, Samuel Temple and Handwerker, Carol A.},
abstractNote = {The limited number of independent β-Sn grain orientations resulting from the difficulty in nucleating β-Sn during solidification of Sn-based solders has a large effect on the resulting β-Sn grain size and, hence, on overall solder joint performance and reliability. This study analyzes the efficacy of Ge as a heterogeneous nucleation agent for β-Sn by observing the morphologies and orientation relationships of as-deposited, solid-state annealed, and liquid-state annealed pure Sn films on single crystal Ge (100), (110), and (111) substrates. Here, the results from scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction showed that the as-deposited Sn films all deposited with a Sn (001)|| z-axis texture, regardless of the underlying Ge substrate orientation. Solid-state annealing at 150 °C for 5 min did not result in significant dewetting of the Sn films, and the films maintained their as-deposited texture of Sn (001)|| z-axis, regardless of the underlying Ge substrate orientation. Liquid-state annealing at 235 °C for 1 min resulted is large-scale dewetting of the Sn films and re-orientation of the Sn films on the various Ge substrates. After solidification, the Ge (100) and (110) single crystal substrates produced patches of dewetted grains of the same orientation but there were no consistent Sn grain textures after liquid-state annealing, suggesting no single orientation relationship. In contrast, solidification on Ge (111) single crystal substrates resulted in isolated grains with a single Sn film texture and an orientation relationship of (100)Sn∥(111)Ge and [100]Sn∥[110]Ge. Density Functional Theory simulations of the experimentally observed Ge (111) sample orientation relationship and the Ge/Sn cube-on-cube orientation relationship suggest favorable relative interfacial binding energies for both interface orientations.},
doi = {10.1007/s11664-019-07640-6},
journal = {Journal of Electronic Materials},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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