skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Demographics, sleep, and daily patterns of caffeine intake of shift workers in a nationally representative sample of the US adult population

Abstract

Abstract Study Objective Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world, and sociodemographic factors including occupation are associated with intake. Shift work, required in various occupations, is associated with poor sleep, inadequate diet, and adverse health effects. Using a large nationally representative database, demographics, sleep, and caffeine intake of US adults working various shifts were assessed. Methods The 24-hour dietary recall data from NHANES 2005–2010 (N = 8,500) were used to estimate caffeine intake from foods and beverages. Work shifts were self-reported as follows: regular day shift; evening shift; night shift; rotating shift; or other shift. Regression analyses assessed associations of shift work with caffeine intake after adjustment for sociodemographic factors. Results Approximately 74% of employed adults were day-shift workers and 26% were nonday-shift workers. Night-shift workers slept for 6.25 ± 0.09 hours per day, somewhat less than day-shift workers who only slept 6.83 ± 0.02 hours (p < .0001). Mean 24-hour weekday caffeine intake of evening-, night-, and rotating-shift workers (217 ± 23, 184 ± 19, and 206 ± 15 mg, respectively) was similar (p > .3) to day-shift workers (203 ± 5 mg). Regardless of work schedule, individuals consumed the most caffeine during morning hours. Evening-more » and night-shift workers reported consuming 36%–46% less caffeine during their work hours and 72%–169% more during nonwork hours than day-shift workers (p < .01). Conclusions Total daily caffeine intake of shift workers is similar to nonshift workers; most caffeine is consumed in the morning regardless of shift. Because shift workers consume less caffeine during regular work hours and more during nonwork hours than day workers, they may be using caffeine to, in part, optimize off-duty alertness.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, USA
  2. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Belcamp, MD, USA
  3. Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, MD, USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1573260
Resource Type:
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Sleep
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Sleep; Journal ID: ISSN 0161-8105
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Lieberman, Harris R., Agarwal, Sanjiv, Caldwell, John A., and Fulgoni, III, Victor L. Demographics, sleep, and daily patterns of caffeine intake of shift workers in a nationally representative sample of the US adult population. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/sleep/zsz240.
Lieberman, Harris R., Agarwal, Sanjiv, Caldwell, John A., & Fulgoni, III, Victor L. Demographics, sleep, and daily patterns of caffeine intake of shift workers in a nationally representative sample of the US adult population. United States. doi:10.1093/sleep/zsz240.
Lieberman, Harris R., Agarwal, Sanjiv, Caldwell, John A., and Fulgoni, III, Victor L. Sat . "Demographics, sleep, and daily patterns of caffeine intake of shift workers in a nationally representative sample of the US adult population". United States. doi:10.1093/sleep/zsz240.
@article{osti_1573260,
title = {Demographics, sleep, and daily patterns of caffeine intake of shift workers in a nationally representative sample of the US adult population},
author = {Lieberman, Harris R. and Agarwal, Sanjiv and Caldwell, John A. and Fulgoni, III, Victor L.},
abstractNote = {Abstract Study Objective Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world, and sociodemographic factors including occupation are associated with intake. Shift work, required in various occupations, is associated with poor sleep, inadequate diet, and adverse health effects. Using a large nationally representative database, demographics, sleep, and caffeine intake of US adults working various shifts were assessed. Methods The 24-hour dietary recall data from NHANES 2005–2010 (N = 8,500) were used to estimate caffeine intake from foods and beverages. Work shifts were self-reported as follows: regular day shift; evening shift; night shift; rotating shift; or other shift. Regression analyses assessed associations of shift work with caffeine intake after adjustment for sociodemographic factors. Results Approximately 74% of employed adults were day-shift workers and 26% were nonday-shift workers. Night-shift workers slept for 6.25 ± 0.09 hours per day, somewhat less than day-shift workers who only slept 6.83 ± 0.02 hours (p < .0001). Mean 24-hour weekday caffeine intake of evening-, night-, and rotating-shift workers (217 ± 23, 184 ± 19, and 206 ± 15 mg, respectively) was similar (p > .3) to day-shift workers (203 ± 5 mg). Regardless of work schedule, individuals consumed the most caffeine during morning hours. Evening- and night-shift workers reported consuming 36%–46% less caffeine during their work hours and 72%–169% more during nonwork hours than day-shift workers (p < .01). Conclusions Total daily caffeine intake of shift workers is similar to nonshift workers; most caffeine is consumed in the morning regardless of shift. Because shift workers consume less caffeine during regular work hours and more during nonwork hours than day workers, they may be using caffeine to, in part, optimize off-duty alertness.},
doi = {10.1093/sleep/zsz240},
journal = {Sleep},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1093/sleep/zsz240

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Night shift preparation, performance, and perception: are there differences between emergency medicine nurses, residents, and faculty?
journal, April 2018

  • Richards, John R.; Stayton, Taylor L.; Wells, Jason A.
  • Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.15441/ceem.17.270

Shift Work Sleep Disorder: Prevalence and Consequences Beyond that of Symptomatic Day Workers
journal, December 2004


Coping with shift work-related circadian disruption: A mixed-methods case study on napping and caffeine use in Australian nurses and midwives
journal, May 2018


Maintaining alertness and performance during sleep deprivation: modafinil versus caffeine
journal, October 2001

  • Wesensten, Nancy; Belenky, Gregory; Kautz, Mary A.
  • Psychopharmacology, Vol. 159, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s002130100916

Shift work, safety and productivity
journal, March 2003


Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during U.S. Navy SEAL training
journal, November 2002

  • Lieberman, Harris; Tharion, William; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara
  • Psychopharmacology, Vol. 164, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00213-002-1217-9

Sleep Strategies of Night-Shift Nurses on Days Off: Which Ones are Most Adaptive?
journal, December 2014


Coffee Drinking Is Widespread in the United States, but Usual Intake Varies by Key Demographic and Lifestyle Factors
journal, August 2016

  • Loftfield, Erikka; Freedman, Neal D.; Dodd, Kevin W.
  • The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 146, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.3945/jn.116.233940

Shift Work and Shift Work Sleep Disorder
journal, May 2017


Update on NHANES Dietary Data: Focus on Collection, Release, Analytical Considerations, and Uses to Inform Public Policy
journal, January 2016

  • Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dwyer, Johanna; Terry, Ana
  • Advances in Nutrition, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3945/an.115.009258

Effects of caffeine or diphenhydramine on visual vigilance
journal, March 1994

  • Fine, Bernard J.; Kobrick, John L.; Lieberman, Harris R.
  • Psychopharmacology, Vol. 114, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02244842

Shift Work: Disrupted Circadian Rhythms and Sleep—Implications for Health and Well-being
journal, April 2017

  • James, Stephen M.; Honn, Kimberly A.; Gaddameedhi, Shobhan
  • Current Sleep Medicine Reports, Vol. 3, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40675-017-0071-6

Caffeine Eliminates Psychomotor Vigilance Deficits from Sleep Inertia
journal, October 2001

  • Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Price, Nicholas J.; Mullington, Janet M.
  • Sleep, Vol. 24, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1093/sleep/24.7.813

Efficacy of a ‘functional energy drink’ in counteracting driver sleepiness
journal, March 2002


Prevalence rates of work organization characteristics among workers in the U.S.: Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey
journal, August 2012

  • Alterman, Toni; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Dahlhamer, James M.
  • American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 56, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/ajim.22108

Measures to counteract the negative effects of night work
journal, December 2009

  • Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Magerøy, Nils
  • Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, Vol. 36, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.2886

Increased injuries on night shift
journal, October 1994


Low-Dose Repeated Caffeine Administration for Circadian-Phase-Dependent Performance Degradation During Extended Wakefulness
journal, May 2004

  • Wyatt, James K.; Cajochen, Christian; Cecco, Angela Ritz-De
  • Sleep, Vol. 27, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/sleep/27.3.374

Daily Patterns of Caffeine Intake and the Association of Intake with Multiple Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors in US Adults Based on the NHANES 2007–2012 Surveys
journal, January 2019

  • Lieberman, Harris R.; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L.
  • Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 119, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2018.08.152

Caffeine's Effects on Performance and Mood are Independent of Age and Gender
journal, January 1998


Combined effects of shift work and life-style on the prevalence of insomnia, sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness
journal, August 1998

  • Härmä, Mikko; Tenkanen, Leena; Sjöblom, Tom
  • Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, Vol. 24, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.324

National Sleep Foundation’s updated sleep duration recommendations: final report
journal, December 2015


Effect of caffeine on physiological sleep tendency and ability to sustain wakefulness at night
journal, June 1990

  • Walsh, James K.; Muehlbach, Mark J.; Humm, Tina M.
  • Psychopharmacology, Vol. 101, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02244139

Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel
journal, October 2016

  • Knapik, Joseph; Trone, Daniel; McGraw, Susan
  • Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.3390/nu8100620

Caffeine reversal of sleep deprivation effects on alertness and mood
journal, September 1993

  • Penetar, David; McCann, Una; Thorne, David
  • Psychopharmacology, Vol. 112, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02244933

Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep
journal, November 2016


Shift work: coping with the biological clock
journal, January 2010


Early morning driver sleepiness: Effectiveness of 200 mg caffeine
journal, March 2000


Effects of caffeine on the human circadian clock in vivo and in vitro
journal, September 2015

  • Burke, Tina M.; Markwald, Rachel R.; McHill, Andrew W.
  • Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 7, Issue 305
  • DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aac5125

The effect of shift‐work on food intake and eating habits
journal, October 2004


Impacts of shift work on sleep and circadian rhythms
journal, October 2014


Sleepiness, sleep, and use of sleepiness countermeasures in shift-working long-haul truck drivers
journal, July 2015


A prospective study of fatal occupational accidents - relationship to sleeping difficulties and occupational factors.
journal, March 2002


Hypnotics and caffeine as countermeasures for shiftwork-related sleepiness and sleep disturbance
journal, December 1995


Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Effects of Caffeine in Fatigued Shift Workers: Implications for Emergency Medical Services Personnel
journal, January 2018


Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug?
journal, April 2015


Do Permanent Night Workers Show Circadian Adjustment? A Review Based on the Endogenous Melatonin Rhythm
journal, January 2008


Caffeine Use among Active Duty US Army Soldiers
journal, June 2012

  • Lieberman, Harris R.; Stavinoha, Trisha; McGraw, Susan
  • Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 112, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.02.001

Timing and Consolidation of Human Sleep, Wakefulness, and Performance by a Symphony of Oscillators
journal, August 2005


Caffeine at work
journal, August 2005

  • Smith, Andrew P.
  • Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, Vol. 20, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/hup.705

A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance
journal, December 2016


The effects of low doses of caffeine on human performance and mood
journal, July 1987

  • Lieberman, H. R.; Wurtman, R. J.; Emde, G. G.
  • Psychopharmacology, Vol. 92, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00210835

Suppression of sleepiness in drivers: Combination of caffeine with a short nap
journal, November 1997


Fatigue and its management in the workplace
journal, January 2019


Shift work and health – how to proceed?
journal, February 2010

  • Härmä, Mikko; Kecklund, Göran
  • Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, Vol. 36, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.2902

Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Shift Work and Shift Work Disorder
journal, June 2009


Intake of caffeine from all sources and reasons for use by college students
journal, April 2019

  • Mahoney, Caroline R.; Giles, Grace E.; Marriott, Bernadette P.
  • Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 38, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.004