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Title: Pore elimination mechanisms during 3D printing of metals

Abstract

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is a 3D printing technology that can print metal parts with complex geometries without the design constraints of traditional manufacturing routes. However, the parts printed by LPBF normally contain many more pores than those made by conventional methods, which severely deteriorates their properties. Here, by combining in-situ high-speed high-resolution synchrotron x-ray imaging experiments and multi-physics modeling, we unveil the dynamics and mechanisms of pore motion and elimination in the LPBF process. We find that the high thermocapillary force, induced by the high temperature gradient in the laser interaction region, can rapidly eliminate pores from the melt pool during the LPBF process. The thermocapillary force driven pore elimination mechanism revealed here may guide the development of 3D printing approaches to achieve pore-free 3D printing of metals.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  3. National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
  4. Honeywell FM&T, Kansas City, MO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Enterprise Assessments, Kansas City National Security Campus; National Science Foundation (NSF); Argonne National Laboratory, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1572905
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Hojjatzadeh, S. Mohammad H., Parab, Niranjan D., Yan, Wentao, Guo, Qilin, Xiong, Lianghua, Zhao, Cang, Qu, Minglei, Escano, Luis I., Xiao, Xianghui, Fezzaa, Kamel, Everhart, Wes, Sun, Tao, and Chen, Lianyi. Pore elimination mechanisms during 3D printing of metals. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10973-9.
Hojjatzadeh, S. Mohammad H., Parab, Niranjan D., Yan, Wentao, Guo, Qilin, Xiong, Lianghua, Zhao, Cang, Qu, Minglei, Escano, Luis I., Xiao, Xianghui, Fezzaa, Kamel, Everhart, Wes, Sun, Tao, & Chen, Lianyi. Pore elimination mechanisms during 3D printing of metals. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10973-9.
Hojjatzadeh, S. Mohammad H., Parab, Niranjan D., Yan, Wentao, Guo, Qilin, Xiong, Lianghua, Zhao, Cang, Qu, Minglei, Escano, Luis I., Xiao, Xianghui, Fezzaa, Kamel, Everhart, Wes, Sun, Tao, and Chen, Lianyi. Fri . "Pore elimination mechanisms during 3D printing of metals". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10973-9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1572905.
@article{osti_1572905,
title = {Pore elimination mechanisms during 3D printing of metals},
author = {Hojjatzadeh, S. Mohammad H. and Parab, Niranjan D. and Yan, Wentao and Guo, Qilin and Xiong, Lianghua and Zhao, Cang and Qu, Minglei and Escano, Luis I. and Xiao, Xianghui and Fezzaa, Kamel and Everhart, Wes and Sun, Tao and Chen, Lianyi},
abstractNote = {Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is a 3D printing technology that can print metal parts with complex geometries without the design constraints of traditional manufacturing routes. However, the parts printed by LPBF normally contain many more pores than those made by conventional methods, which severely deteriorates their properties. Here, by combining in-situ high-speed high-resolution synchrotron x-ray imaging experiments and multi-physics modeling, we unveil the dynamics and mechanisms of pore motion and elimination in the LPBF process. We find that the high thermocapillary force, induced by the high temperature gradient in the laser interaction region, can rapidly eliminate pores from the melt pool during the LPBF process. The thermocapillary force driven pore elimination mechanism revealed here may guide the development of 3D printing approaches to achieve pore-free 3D printing of metals.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-10973-9},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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