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Title: Linear spectropolarimetry of 35 Type Ia supernovae with VLT/FORS: an analysis of the Si$$\small {II}$$ line polarization

Abstract

Spectropolarimetry enables us to measure the geometry and chemical structure of the ejecta in supernova explosions, which is fundamental for the understanding of their explosion mechanism(s) and progenitor systems. We collected archival data of 35 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), observed with Focal Reducer and Low-Dispersion Spectrograph (FORS) on the Very Large Telescope at 127 epochs in total. We examined the polarization of the Si ιι λ6355 Å line ($$p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$$) as a function of time, which is seen to peak at a range of various polarization degrees and epochs relative to maximum brightness. We reproduced the $$\Delta m_{15}\!-\!p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$$ relationship identified in a previous study, and show that subluminous and transitional objects display polarization values below the $$\Delta m_{15}\!-\!p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$$ relationship for normal SNe Ia. We found a statistically significant linear relationship between the polarization of the Si ii λ6355 Å line before maximum brightness and the Si ιι line velocity and suggest that this, along with the $$\Delta m_{15}\!-\!p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$$ relationship, may be explained in the context of a delayed-detonation model. In contrast, we compared our observations to numerical predictions in the $$\Delta m_{15}\!-\!v_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$$ plane and found a dichotomy in the polarization properties between Chandrasekhar and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions, which supports the possibility of two distinct explosion mechanisms. A subsample of SNe displays evolution of loops in the q–u plane that suggests a more complex Si structure with depth. This insight, which could not be gleaned from total flux spectra, presents a new constraint on explosion models. To conclude, we compared our statistical sample of the Si ιι polarization to quantitative predictions of the polarization levels for the double-detonation, delayed-detonation, and violent-merger models.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [2];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physics Division; European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München (Germany)
  2. European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München (Germany)
  3. Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics
  4. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  5. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre
  6. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics
  7. Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
  8. Univ. Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Inst. of Astrophysics; Millennium Inst. of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile)
  9. Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  10. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1572871
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 490; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae; polarization

Citation Formats

Cikota, Aleksandar, Patat, Ferdinando, Wang, Lifan, Wheeler, J. Craig, Bulla, Mattia, Baade, Dietrich, Höflich, Peter, Cikota, Stefan, Clocchiatti, Alejandro, Maund, Justyn R., Stevance, Heloise F., and Yang, Yi. Linear spectropolarimetry of 35 Type Ia supernovae with VLT/FORS: an analysis of the Si$\small {II}$ line polarization. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2322.
Cikota, Aleksandar, Patat, Ferdinando, Wang, Lifan, Wheeler, J. Craig, Bulla, Mattia, Baade, Dietrich, Höflich, Peter, Cikota, Stefan, Clocchiatti, Alejandro, Maund, Justyn R., Stevance, Heloise F., & Yang, Yi. Linear spectropolarimetry of 35 Type Ia supernovae with VLT/FORS: an analysis of the Si$\small {II}$ line polarization. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2322.
Cikota, Aleksandar, Patat, Ferdinando, Wang, Lifan, Wheeler, J. Craig, Bulla, Mattia, Baade, Dietrich, Höflich, Peter, Cikota, Stefan, Clocchiatti, Alejandro, Maund, Justyn R., Stevance, Heloise F., and Yang, Yi. Fri . "Linear spectropolarimetry of 35 Type Ia supernovae with VLT/FORS: an analysis of the Si$\small {II}$ line polarization". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2322.
@article{osti_1572871,
title = {Linear spectropolarimetry of 35 Type Ia supernovae with VLT/FORS: an analysis of the Si$\small {II}$ line polarization},
author = {Cikota, Aleksandar and Patat, Ferdinando and Wang, Lifan and Wheeler, J. Craig and Bulla, Mattia and Baade, Dietrich and Höflich, Peter and Cikota, Stefan and Clocchiatti, Alejandro and Maund, Justyn R. and Stevance, Heloise F. and Yang, Yi},
abstractNote = {Spectropolarimetry enables us to measure the geometry and chemical structure of the ejecta in supernova explosions, which is fundamental for the understanding of their explosion mechanism(s) and progenitor systems. We collected archival data of 35 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), observed with Focal Reducer and Low-Dispersion Spectrograph (FORS) on the Very Large Telescope at 127 epochs in total. We examined the polarization of the Si ιι λ6355 Å line ($p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$) as a function of time, which is seen to peak at a range of various polarization degrees and epochs relative to maximum brightness. We reproduced the $\Delta m_{15}\!-\!p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$ relationship identified in a previous study, and show that subluminous and transitional objects display polarization values below the $\Delta m_{15}\!-\!p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$ relationship for normal SNe Ia. We found a statistically significant linear relationship between the polarization of the Si ii λ6355 Å line before maximum brightness and the Si ιι line velocity and suggest that this, along with the $\Delta m_{15}\!-\!p_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$ relationship, may be explained in the context of a delayed-detonation model. In contrast, we compared our observations to numerical predictions in the $\Delta m_{15}\!-\!v_{\rm Si\, \small {II}}$ plane and found a dichotomy in the polarization properties between Chandrasekhar and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions, which supports the possibility of two distinct explosion mechanisms. A subsample of SNe displays evolution of loops in the q–u plane that suggests a more complex Si structure with depth. This insight, which could not be gleaned from total flux spectra, presents a new constraint on explosion models. To conclude, we compared our statistical sample of the Si ιι polarization to quantitative predictions of the polarization levels for the double-detonation, delayed-detonation, and violent-merger models.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2322},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 490,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

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Typing Supernova Remnants Using X-Ray line Emission Morphologies
journal, November 2009


Properties of extragalactic dust inferred from linear polarimetry of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, May 2015


CfAIR2: NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT CURVES OF 94 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, September 2015

  • Friedman, Andrew S.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Marion, G. H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 220, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/220/1/9

Spectropolarimetry of SN 1993J in NGC 3031
journal, September 1993

  • Trammell, Susan R.; Hines, Dean C.; Wheeler, J. C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 414
  • DOI: 10.1086/186986

Spectropolarimetry of Galactic stars with anomalous extinction sightlines
journal, July 2018


Polarization of SN 1987A Revisited
journal, May 1996

  • Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J. Craig
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 462, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/310026