skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Measurement of the cosmic ray proton spectrum from 40 GeV to 100 TeV with the DAMPE satellite

Abstract

The precise measurement of the spectrum of protons, the most abundant component of the cosmic radiation, is essential to understand the source and acceleration of cosmic rays in the Milky Way. This work reports the measurement of the cosmic ray proton fluxes with kinetic energies from 40 GeV to 100 TeV, with 2 1/ 2 years of data recorded by the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE). This is the first time that an experiment directly measures the cosmic ray protons up to ~100 TeV with high statistics. The measured spectrum validates the spectral hardening at ~300 GeV found by previous experiments and reveals a softening at ~13.6 TeV, with the spectral index changing from ~2.60 to ~2.85. Our result implies the existence of a new spectral feature of cosmic rays at energies lower than the so-called knee and sheds new light on the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo more »; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Contributing Org.:
DAMPE Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1572843
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 9; Related Information: Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC); Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

An, Q., Asfandiyarov, R., Azzarello, P., Bernardini, P., Bi, X. J., Cai, M. S., Chang, J., Chen, D. Y., Chen, H. F., Chen, J. L., Chen, W., Cui, M. Y., Cui, T. S., Dai, H. T., D’Amone, A., De Benedittis, A., De Mitri, I., Di Santo, M., Ding, M., Dong, T. K., Dong, Y. F., Dong, Z. X., Donvito, G., Droz, D., Duan, J. L., Duan, K. K., D’Urso, D., Fan, R. R., Fan, Y. Z., Fang, F., Feng, C. Q., Feng, L., Fusco, P., Gallo, V., Gan, F. J., Gao, M., Gargano, F., Gong, K., Gong, Y. Z., Guo, D. Y., Guo, J. H., Guo, X. L., Han, S. X., Hu, Y. M., Huang, G. S., Huang, X. Y., Huang, Y. Y., Ionica, M., Jiang, W., Jin, X., Kong, J., Lei, S. J., Li, S., Li, W. L., Li, X., Li, X. Q., Li, Y., Liang, Y. F., Liang, Y. M., Liao, N. H., Liu, C. M., Liu, H., Liu, J., Liu, S. B., Liu, W. Q., Liu, Y., Loparco, F., Luo, C. N., Ma, M., Ma, P. X., Ma, S. Y., Ma, T., Ma, X. Y., Marsella, G., Mazziotta, M. N., Mo, D., Niu, X. Y., Pan, X., Peng, W. X., Peng, X. Y., Qiao, R., Rao, J. N., Salinas, M. M., Shang, G. Z., Shen, W. H., Shen, Z. Q., Shen, Z. T., Song, J. X., Su, H., Su, M., Sun, Z. Y., Surdo, A., Teng, X. J., Tykhonov, A., Vitillo, S., Wang, C., Wang, H., Wang, H. Y., Wang, J. Z., Wang, L. G., Wang, Q., Wang, S., Wang, X. H., Wang, X. L., Wang, Y. F., Wang, Y. P., Wang, Y. Z., Wang, Z. M., Wei, D. M., Wei, J. J., Wei, Y. F., Wen, S. C., Wu, D., Wu, J., Wu, L. B., Wu, S. S., Wu, X., Xi, K., Xia, Z. Q., Xu, H. T., Xu, Z. H., Xu, Z. L., Xu, Z. Z., Xue, G. F., Yang, H. B., Yang, P., Yang, Y. Q., Yang, Z. L., Yao, H. J., Yu, Y. H., Yuan, Q., Yue, C., Zang, J. J., Zhang, F., Zhang, J. Y., Zhang, J. Z., Zhang, P. F., Zhang, S. X., Zhang, W. Z., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y. J., Zhang, Y. L., Zhang, Y. P., Zhang, Y. Q., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Z. Y., Zhao, H., Zhao, H. Y., Zhao, X. F., Zhou, C. Y., Zhou, Y., Zhu, X., Zhu, Y., and Zimmer, S. Measurement of the cosmic ray proton spectrum from 40 GeV to 100 TeV with the DAMPE satellite. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax3793.
An, Q., Asfandiyarov, R., Azzarello, P., Bernardini, P., Bi, X. J., Cai, M. S., Chang, J., Chen, D. Y., Chen, H. F., Chen, J. L., Chen, W., Cui, M. Y., Cui, T. S., Dai, H. T., D’Amone, A., De Benedittis, A., De Mitri, I., Di Santo, M., Ding, M., Dong, T. K., Dong, Y. F., Dong, Z. X., Donvito, G., Droz, D., Duan, J. L., Duan, K. K., D’Urso, D., Fan, R. R., Fan, Y. Z., Fang, F., Feng, C. Q., Feng, L., Fusco, P., Gallo, V., Gan, F. J., Gao, M., Gargano, F., Gong, K., Gong, Y. Z., Guo, D. Y., Guo, J. H., Guo, X. L., Han, S. X., Hu, Y. M., Huang, G. S., Huang, X. Y., Huang, Y. Y., Ionica, M., Jiang, W., Jin, X., Kong, J., Lei, S. J., Li, S., Li, W. L., Li, X., Li, X. Q., Li, Y., Liang, Y. F., Liang, Y. M., Liao, N. H., Liu, C. M., Liu, H., Liu, J., Liu, S. B., Liu, W. Q., Liu, Y., Loparco, F., Luo, C. N., Ma, M., Ma, P. X., Ma, S. Y., Ma, T., Ma, X. Y., Marsella, G., Mazziotta, M. N., Mo, D., Niu, X. Y., Pan, X., Peng, W. X., Peng, X. Y., Qiao, R., Rao, J. N., Salinas, M. M., Shang, G. Z., Shen, W. H., Shen, Z. Q., Shen, Z. T., Song, J. X., Su, H., Su, M., Sun, Z. Y., Surdo, A., Teng, X. J., Tykhonov, A., Vitillo, S., Wang, C., Wang, H., Wang, H. Y., Wang, J. Z., Wang, L. G., Wang, Q., Wang, S., Wang, X. H., Wang, X. L., Wang, Y. F., Wang, Y. P., Wang, Y. Z., Wang, Z. M., Wei, D. M., Wei, J. J., Wei, Y. F., Wen, S. C., Wu, D., Wu, J., Wu, L. B., Wu, S. S., Wu, X., Xi, K., Xia, Z. Q., Xu, H. T., Xu, Z. H., Xu, Z. L., Xu, Z. Z., Xue, G. F., Yang, H. B., Yang, P., Yang, Y. Q., Yang, Z. L., Yao, H. J., Yu, Y. H., Yuan, Q., Yue, C., Zang, J. J., Zhang, F., Zhang, J. Y., Zhang, J. Z., Zhang, P. F., Zhang, S. X., Zhang, W. Z., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y. J., Zhang, Y. L., Zhang, Y. P., Zhang, Y. Q., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Z. Y., Zhao, H., Zhao, H. Y., Zhao, X. F., Zhou, C. Y., Zhou, Y., Zhu, X., Zhu, Y., & Zimmer, S. Measurement of the cosmic ray proton spectrum from 40 GeV to 100 TeV with the DAMPE satellite. United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax3793.
An, Q., Asfandiyarov, R., Azzarello, P., Bernardini, P., Bi, X. J., Cai, M. S., Chang, J., Chen, D. Y., Chen, H. F., Chen, J. L., Chen, W., Cui, M. Y., Cui, T. S., Dai, H. T., D’Amone, A., De Benedittis, A., De Mitri, I., Di Santo, M., Ding, M., Dong, T. K., Dong, Y. F., Dong, Z. X., Donvito, G., Droz, D., Duan, J. L., Duan, K. K., D’Urso, D., Fan, R. R., Fan, Y. Z., Fang, F., Feng, C. Q., Feng, L., Fusco, P., Gallo, V., Gan, F. J., Gao, M., Gargano, F., Gong, K., Gong, Y. Z., Guo, D. Y., Guo, J. H., Guo, X. L., Han, S. X., Hu, Y. M., Huang, G. S., Huang, X. Y., Huang, Y. Y., Ionica, M., Jiang, W., Jin, X., Kong, J., Lei, S. J., Li, S., Li, W. L., Li, X., Li, X. Q., Li, Y., Liang, Y. F., Liang, Y. M., Liao, N. H., Liu, C. M., Liu, H., Liu, J., Liu, S. B., Liu, W. Q., Liu, Y., Loparco, F., Luo, C. N., Ma, M., Ma, P. X., Ma, S. Y., Ma, T., Ma, X. Y., Marsella, G., Mazziotta, M. N., Mo, D., Niu, X. Y., Pan, X., Peng, W. X., Peng, X. Y., Qiao, R., Rao, J. N., Salinas, M. M., Shang, G. Z., Shen, W. H., Shen, Z. Q., Shen, Z. T., Song, J. X., Su, H., Su, M., Sun, Z. Y., Surdo, A., Teng, X. J., Tykhonov, A., Vitillo, S., Wang, C., Wang, H., Wang, H. Y., Wang, J. Z., Wang, L. G., Wang, Q., Wang, S., Wang, X. H., Wang, X. L., Wang, Y. F., Wang, Y. P., Wang, Y. Z., Wang, Z. M., Wei, D. M., Wei, J. J., Wei, Y. F., Wen, S. C., Wu, D., Wu, J., Wu, L. B., Wu, S. S., Wu, X., Xi, K., Xia, Z. Q., Xu, H. T., Xu, Z. H., Xu, Z. L., Xu, Z. Z., Xue, G. F., Yang, H. B., Yang, P., Yang, Y. Q., Yang, Z. L., Yao, H. J., Yu, Y. H., Yuan, Q., Yue, C., Zang, J. J., Zhang, F., Zhang, J. Y., Zhang, J. Z., Zhang, P. F., Zhang, S. X., Zhang, W. Z., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y. J., Zhang, Y. L., Zhang, Y. P., Zhang, Y. Q., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Z. Y., Zhao, H., Zhao, H. Y., Zhao, X. F., Zhou, C. Y., Zhou, Y., Zhu, X., Zhu, Y., and Zimmer, S. Tue . "Measurement of the cosmic ray proton spectrum from 40 GeV to 100 TeV with the DAMPE satellite". United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax3793. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1572843.
@article{osti_1572843,
title = {Measurement of the cosmic ray proton spectrum from 40 GeV to 100 TeV with the DAMPE satellite},
author = {An, Q. and Asfandiyarov, R. and Azzarello, P. and Bernardini, P. and Bi, X. J. and Cai, M. S. and Chang, J. and Chen, D. Y. and Chen, H. F. and Chen, J. L. and Chen, W. and Cui, M. Y. and Cui, T. S. and Dai, H. T. and D’Amone, A. and De Benedittis, A. and De Mitri, I. and Di Santo, M. and Ding, M. and Dong, T. K. and Dong, Y. F. and Dong, Z. X. and Donvito, G. and Droz, D. and Duan, J. L. and Duan, K. K. and D’Urso, D. and Fan, R. R. and Fan, Y. Z. and Fang, F. and Feng, C. Q. and Feng, L. and Fusco, P. and Gallo, V. and Gan, F. J. and Gao, M. and Gargano, F. and Gong, K. and Gong, Y. Z. and Guo, D. Y. and Guo, J. H. and Guo, X. L. and Han, S. X. and Hu, Y. M. and Huang, G. S. and Huang, X. Y. and Huang, Y. Y. and Ionica, M. and Jiang, W. and Jin, X. and Kong, J. and Lei, S. J. and Li, S. and Li, W. L. and Li, X. and Li, X. Q. and Li, Y. and Liang, Y. F. and Liang, Y. M. and Liao, N. H. and Liu, C. M. and Liu, H. and Liu, J. and Liu, S. B. and Liu, W. Q. and Liu, Y. and Loparco, F. and Luo, C. N. and Ma, M. and Ma, P. X. and Ma, S. Y. and Ma, T. and Ma, X. Y. and Marsella, G. and Mazziotta, M. N. and Mo, D. and Niu, X. Y. and Pan, X. and Peng, W. X. and Peng, X. Y. and Qiao, R. and Rao, J. N. and Salinas, M. M. and Shang, G. Z. and Shen, W. H. and Shen, Z. Q. and Shen, Z. T. and Song, J. X. and Su, H. and Su, M. and Sun, Z. Y. and Surdo, A. and Teng, X. J. and Tykhonov, A. and Vitillo, S. and Wang, C. and Wang, H. and Wang, H. Y. and Wang, J. Z. and Wang, L. G. and Wang, Q. and Wang, S. and Wang, X. H. and Wang, X. L. and Wang, Y. F. and Wang, Y. P. and Wang, Y. Z. and Wang, Z. M. and Wei, D. M. and Wei, J. J. and Wei, Y. F. and Wen, S. C. and Wu, D. and Wu, J. and Wu, L. B. and Wu, S. S. and Wu, X. and Xi, K. and Xia, Z. Q. and Xu, H. T. and Xu, Z. H. and Xu, Z. L. and Xu, Z. Z. and Xue, G. F. and Yang, H. B. and Yang, P. and Yang, Y. Q. and Yang, Z. L. and Yao, H. J. and Yu, Y. H. and Yuan, Q. and Yue, C. and Zang, J. J. and Zhang, F. and Zhang, J. Y. and Zhang, J. Z. and Zhang, P. F. and Zhang, S. X. and Zhang, W. Z. and Zhang, Y. and Zhang, Y. J. and Zhang, Y. L. and Zhang, Y. P. and Zhang, Y. Q. and Zhang, Z. and Zhang, Z. Y. and Zhao, H. and Zhao, H. Y. and Zhao, X. F. and Zhou, C. Y. and Zhou, Y. and Zhu, X. and Zhu, Y. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {The precise measurement of the spectrum of protons, the most abundant component of the cosmic radiation, is essential to understand the source and acceleration of cosmic rays in the Milky Way. This work reports the measurement of the cosmic ray proton fluxes with kinetic energies from 40 GeV to 100 TeV, with 21/2 years of data recorded by the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE). This is the first time that an experiment directly measures the cosmic ray protons up to ~100 TeV with high statistics. The measured spectrum validates the spectral hardening at ~300 GeV found by previous experiments and reveals a softening at ~13.6 TeV, with the spectral index changing from ~2.60 to ~2.85. Our result implies the existence of a new spectral feature of cosmic rays at energies lower than the so-called knee and sheds new light on the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aax3793},
journal = {Science Advances},
number = 9,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Spectra of Cosmic-Ray Protons and Helium Produced in Supernova Remnants
journal, January 2013

  • Ptuskin, Vladimir; Zirakashvili, Vladimir; Seo, Eun-Suk
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 763, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/763/1/47

Charge measurement of cosmic ray nuclei with the plastic scintillator detector of DAMPE
journal, February 2019


Measurement of absolute energy scale of ECAL of DAMPE with geomagnetic rigidity cutoff
conference, August 2018

  • Zang, Jingjing; Yue, Chuan; Li, Xiang
  • Proceedings of 35th International Cosmic Ray Conference — PoS(ICRC2017)
  • DOI: 10.22323/1.301.0197

On the Origin of the Cosmic Radiation
journal, April 1949


The DArk Matter Particle Explorer mission
journal, October 2017


The on-orbit calibration of DArk Matter Particle Explorer
journal, March 2019


The calibration and electron energy reconstruction of the BGO ECAL of the DAMPE detector
journal, November 2016

  • Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Chi; Dong, Jianing
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 836
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2016.08.015

A method for aligning the plastic scintillator detector on DAMPE
journal, June 2019

  • Ma, Peng-Xiong; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Ya-Peng
  • Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 19, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/1674-4527/19/6/82

Discrepant Hardening Observed in Cosmic-Ray Elemental Spectra
journal, April 2010


PAMELA Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Proton and Helium Spectra
journal, March 2011


Proton and Helium Spectra from the CREAM-III Flight
journal, April 2017


The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications
journal, June 2014


The plastic scintillator detector for DAMPE
journal, September 2017


Internal alignment and position resolution of the silicon tracker of DAMPE determined with orbit data
journal, June 2018

  • Tykhonov, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 893
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2018.02.105

On the knee of Galactic cosmic rays in light of sub-TeV spectral hardenings
journal, June 2018


Energy spectra of abundant nuclei of primary cosmic rays from the data of ATIC-2 experiment: Final results
journal, May 2009

  • Panov, A. D.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.
  • Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, Vol. 73, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.3103/S1062873809050098

Remarks on Super-Novae and Cosmic Rays
journal, July 1934


Three component model of cosmic ray spectra from 10 GeV to 100 PeV
journal, October 2006


Cosmic-ray electron-positron spectrum from 7 GeV to 2 TeV with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
journal, April 2017


Design of a high dynamic range photomultiplier base board for the BGO ECAL of DAMPE
journal, April 2015

  • Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yunlong; Dong, Jianing
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 780
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2015.01.036

Argo-Ybj Observation of the Large-Scale Cosmic ray Anisotropy During the Solar Minimum Between Cycles 23 and 24
journal, August 2015


The DAMPE silicon–tungsten tracker
journal, September 2016

  • Azzarello, P.; Ambrosi, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 831
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2016.02.077

A multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayes' theorem
journal, August 1995

  • D'Agostini, G.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 362, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(95)00274-X

Cosmic ray proton plus helium energy spectrum measured by the ARGO-YBJ experiment in the energy range 3–300 TeV
journal, June 2015


Geant4—a simulation toolkit
journal, July 2003

  • Agostinelli, S.; Allison, J.; Amako, K.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 506, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)01368-8

The Nine Lives of Cosmic Rays in Galaxies
journal, August 2015


New Universal Cosmic-Ray Knee near a Magnetic Rigidity of 10 TV with the NUCLEON Space Observatory
journal, June 2018


Excesses of cosmic ray spectra from a single nearby source
journal, July 2017


The PAMELA Mission: Heralding a new era in precision cosmic ray physics
journal, November 2014


Testing the Origin of High-Energy Cosmic rays
journal, May 2012

  • Vladimirov, A. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Moskalenko, I. V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 752, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/752/1/68

A parameterized energy correction method for electromagnetic showers in BGO-ECAL of DAMPE
journal, June 2017

  • Yue, Chuan; Zang, Jingjing; Dong, Tiekuang
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 856
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2017.03.013

Cosmic-Ray Propagation and Interactions in the Galaxy
journal, November 2007


Spectral Breaks as a Signature of Cosmic Ray Induced Turbulence in the Galaxy
journal, August 2012


Energy Spectra of Cosmic-Ray Nuclei at high Energies
journal, November 2009