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Title: The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science

Abstract

Herein, we introduce the southern stellar stream spectroscopy survey (S5), an on-going program to map the kinematics and chemistry of stellar streams in the southern hemisphere. The initial focus of S5 has been spectroscopic observations of recently identified streams within the footprint of the dark energy survey (DES), with the eventual goal of surveying streams across the entire southern sky. Stellar streams are composed of material that has been tidally striped from dwarf galaxies and globular clusters and hence are excellent dynamical probes of the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, as well as providing a detailed snapshot of its accretion history. Observing with the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope’s 2-degree-Field fibre positioner and AAOmega spectrograph, and combining the precise photometry of DES DR1 with the superb proper motions from Gaia DR2, allows us to conduct an efficient spectroscopic survey to map these stellar streams. So far S5 has mapped nine DES streams and three streams outside of DES; the former are the first spectroscopic observations of these recently discovered streams. In addition to the stream survey, we use spare fibres to undertake a Milky Way halo survey and a low-redshift galaxy survey. This paper presents an overview of the S5more » program, describing the scientific motivation for the survey, target selection, observation strategy, data reduction, and survey validation. Lastly, we describe early science results on stellar streams and Milky Way halo stars drawn from the survey. Updates on S5, including future public data releases, can be found at http://s5collab.github.io.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12];  [13];  [13]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [14];  [7];  [15]; ORCiD logo [16]; ORCiD logo [4] more »;  [17];  [18]; ORCiD logo [19]; ORCiD logo [20]; ORCiD logo [21]; ORCiD logo [22];  [12];  [8]; ORCiD logo [21]; ORCiD logo [23];  [24];  [13];  [25] « less
  1. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101, USA, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  2. McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  3. Department of Physics & Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia, Macquarie University Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics & Astrophotonics, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
  4. Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
  5. Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Rd, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA, Australian Astronomical Optics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, Macquarie Park, NSW 2113, Australia
  6. School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
  7. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
  8. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  9. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA, Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
  10. Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
  11. George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  12. Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia
  13. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  14. Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
  15. Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
  16. School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia, Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), Australia
  17. Australian Astronomical Optics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, Macquarie Park, NSW 2113, Australia
  18. Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue Madison, WI 53706, USA
  19. Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, NL-9700AV Groningen, the Netherlands
  20. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  21. Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia, Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), Australia
  22. School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
  23. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile
  24. Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, PO Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  25. (
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
Contributing Org.:
S5 Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1572589
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1568863; OSTI ID: 1634010
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1907.09481; FERMILAB-PUB-19-290-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-05CH1123; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 490 Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; globular clusters: general; galaxy: halo; galaxy: kinematics and dynamics; galaxies: dwarf

Citation Formats

Li, T. S., Koposov, S. E., Zucker, D. B., Lewis, G. F., Kuehn, K., Simpson, J. D., Ji, A. P., Shipp, N., Mao, Y-Y, Geha, M., Pace, A. B., Mackey, A. D., Allam, S., Tucker, D. L., Da Costa, G. S., Erkal, D., Simon, J. D., Mould, J. R., Martell, S. L., Wan, Z., De Silva, G. M., Bechtol, K., Balbinot, E., Belokurov, V., Bland-Hawthorn, J., Casey, A. R., Cullinane, L., Drlica-Wagner, A., Sharma, S., Vivas, A. K., Wechsler, R. H., Yanny, B., and S5 Collaboration). The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2731.
Li, T. S., Koposov, S. E., Zucker, D. B., Lewis, G. F., Kuehn, K., Simpson, J. D., Ji, A. P., Shipp, N., Mao, Y-Y, Geha, M., Pace, A. B., Mackey, A. D., Allam, S., Tucker, D. L., Da Costa, G. S., Erkal, D., Simon, J. D., Mould, J. R., Martell, S. L., Wan, Z., De Silva, G. M., Bechtol, K., Balbinot, E., Belokurov, V., Bland-Hawthorn, J., Casey, A. R., Cullinane, L., Drlica-Wagner, A., Sharma, S., Vivas, A. K., Wechsler, R. H., Yanny, B., & S5 Collaboration). The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2731.
Li, T. S., Koposov, S. E., Zucker, D. B., Lewis, G. F., Kuehn, K., Simpson, J. D., Ji, A. P., Shipp, N., Mao, Y-Y, Geha, M., Pace, A. B., Mackey, A. D., Allam, S., Tucker, D. L., Da Costa, G. S., Erkal, D., Simon, J. D., Mould, J. R., Martell, S. L., Wan, Z., De Silva, G. M., Bechtol, K., Balbinot, E., Belokurov, V., Bland-Hawthorn, J., Casey, A. R., Cullinane, L., Drlica-Wagner, A., Sharma, S., Vivas, A. K., Wechsler, R. H., Yanny, B., and S5 Collaboration). Thu . "The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2731.
@article{osti_1572589,
title = {The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science},
author = {Li, T. S. and Koposov, S. E. and Zucker, D. B. and Lewis, G. F. and Kuehn, K. and Simpson, J. D. and Ji, A. P. and Shipp, N. and Mao, Y-Y and Geha, M. and Pace, A. B. and Mackey, A. D. and Allam, S. and Tucker, D. L. and Da Costa, G. S. and Erkal, D. and Simon, J. D. and Mould, J. R. and Martell, S. L. and Wan, Z. and De Silva, G. M. and Bechtol, K. and Balbinot, E. and Belokurov, V. and Bland-Hawthorn, J. and Casey, A. R. and Cullinane, L. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Sharma, S. and Vivas, A. K. and Wechsler, R. H. and Yanny, B. and S5 Collaboration)},
abstractNote = {Herein, we introduce the southern stellar stream spectroscopy survey (S5), an on-going program to map the kinematics and chemistry of stellar streams in the southern hemisphere. The initial focus of S5 has been spectroscopic observations of recently identified streams within the footprint of the dark energy survey (DES), with the eventual goal of surveying streams across the entire southern sky. Stellar streams are composed of material that has been tidally striped from dwarf galaxies and globular clusters and hence are excellent dynamical probes of the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, as well as providing a detailed snapshot of its accretion history. Observing with the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope’s 2-degree-Field fibre positioner and AAOmega spectrograph, and combining the precise photometry of DES DR1 with the superb proper motions from Gaia DR2, allows us to conduct an efficient spectroscopic survey to map these stellar streams. So far S5 has mapped nine DES streams and three streams outside of DES; the former are the first spectroscopic observations of these recently discovered streams. In addition to the stream survey, we use spare fibres to undertake a Milky Way halo survey and a low-redshift galaxy survey. This paper presents an overview of the S5 program, describing the scientific motivation for the survey, target selection, observation strategy, data reduction, and survey validation. Lastly, we describe early science results on stellar streams and Milky Way halo stars drawn from the survey. Updates on S5, including future public data releases, can be found at http://s5collab.github.io.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2731},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 3,
volume = 490,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2731

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The total mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud from its perturbation on the Orphan stream
journal, May 2019

  • Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.; Laporte, C. F. P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1371

emcee : The MCMC Hammer
journal, March 2013

  • Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hogg, David W.; Lang, Dustin
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 125, Issue 925
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Stellar streams around the Magellanic Clouds
journal, December 2015

  • Belokurov, Vasily; Koposov, Sergey E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 456, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2688

The Dynamics of star Stream gaps
journal, September 2013


Gaia 1 and 2. A pair of new Galactic star clusters
journal, May 2017

  • Koposov, Sergey E.; Belokurov, V.; Torrealba, G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 470, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1182

Convective line shifts for the Gaia RVS from the CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid
journal, February 2013


Accurate Stellar Kinematics at Faint Magnitudes: Application to the BoÖTes i Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy
journal, July 2011


Ships Passing in the Night: Spectroscopic Analysis of Two Ultra-faint Satellites in the Constellation Carina
journal, April 2018


The Dark Energy Survey: Data Release 1
journal, November 2018

  • Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 239, Issue 2
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The Segue Stellar Parameter Pipeline. i. Description and Comparison of Individual Methods
journal, October 2008


Identification of A‐colored Stars and Structure in the Halo of the Milky Way from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data
journal, September 2000

  • Yanny, Brian; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Kent, Steve
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 540, Issue 2
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The time Evolution of gaps in Tidal Streams
journal, August 2016


At a Crossroads: Stellar Streams in the South Galactic Cap
journal, September 2017


OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: first-year operation and results
journal, July 2015

  • Yuan, Fang; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 452, Issue 3
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The Shape of the Inner Milky way halo from Observations of the pal 5 and gd–1 Stellar Streams
journal, December 2016


Astropy: A community Python package for astronomy
journal, September 2013


The Anglo-Australian Observatory 2dF facility
journal, June 2002


Regulation of T cell activation and tolerance by PDL2
journal, July 2006

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The unWISE Catalog: Two Billion Infrared Sources from Five Years of WISE Imaging
journal, February 2019

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  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 240, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aafbea

The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)
journal, August 2017

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  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 154, Issue 3
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The Gaia mission
journal, November 2016


A Two Micron All Sky Survey View of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy. II. Swope Telescope Spectroscopy of M Giant Stars in the Dynamically Cold Sagittarius Tidal Stream
journal, July 2004

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  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 128, Issue 1
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The EAGLE project: simulating the evolution and assembly of galaxies and their environments
journal, November 2014

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Fourteen candidate RR Lyrae star streams in the inner Galaxy
journal, November 2017

  • Mateu, Cecilia; Read, Justin I.; Kawata, Daisuke
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The most Metal-Poor Stars. iii. the Metallicity Distribution Function and Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Fraction, ,
journal, December 2012


WEAVE: the next generation wide-field spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope
conference, September 2012

  • Dalton, Gavin; Trager, Scott C.; Abrams, Don Carlos
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
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The Milky Way Tomography with SDSS. II. Stellar Metallicity
journal, September 2008

  • Ivezić, Željko; Sesar, Branimir; Jurić, Mario
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Gravitationally lensed quasars in Gaia: I. Resolving small-separation lenses
journal, August 2017

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First year performance of the IceCube neutrino telescope
journal, October 2006


Feeling the Pull: a Study of Natural Galactic Accelerometers. i. Photometry of the Delicate Stellar Stream of the Palomar 5 Globular Cluster
journal, February 2016

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  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 819, Issue 1
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The First Tidally Disrupted Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy?: A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Tucana III Stream
journal, October 2018


Stray, swing and scatter: angular momentum evolution of orbits and streams in aspherical potentials
journal, June 2016

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  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 2
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A Gaia Data Release 2 catalogue of white dwarfs and a comparison with SDSS
journal, November 2018

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  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 482, Issue 4
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Proper Motions of Milky Way Ultra-faint Satellites with Gaia DR2 × DES DR1
journal, April 2019


Stellar streams as probes of dark halo mass and morphology: a Bayesian reconstruction: Stellar streams as dark halo probes
journal, September 2011


The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (Wise): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance
journal, November 2010


Random Forests
journal, January 2001


Discovery of a cold stellar stream in the ATLAS DR1 data
journal, June 2014

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Great Circle Tidal Streams: Evidence for a Nearly Spherical Massive Dark Halo around the Milky Way
journal, April 2001

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Gaia Data Release 2 : Variable stars in the colour-absolute magnitude diagram★★★
journal, March 2019


Farthest Neighbor: The Distant Milky Way Satellite Eridanus II
journal, March 2017


IDENTIFYING BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS USING THE z FILTER
journal, March 2012


Tidal Streams as Probes of the Galactic Potential
journal, February 1999

  • Johnston, Kathryn V.; Zhao, HongSheng; Spergel, David N.
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4MOST: 4-metre multi-object spectroscopic telescope
conference, October 2012

  • de Jong, Roelof S.; Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Chiappini, Cristina
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
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