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Title: Study on the Impacts of Capillary Number and Initial Water Saturation on the Residual Gas Distribution by NMR

Abstract

The determination of microscopic residual gas distribution is beneficial for exploiting reservoirs to their maximum potential. In this work, both forced and spontaneous imbibition (waterflooding) experiments were performed on a high-pressure displacement experimental setup, which was integrated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to reveal the impacts of capillary number ( Ca) and initial water saturation ( S wi) on the residual gas distribution over four magnitudes of injection rates (Q = 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mL/min), expressed as Ca (log Ca = –8.68, –7.68, –6.68 and –5.68), and three different S wi ( S wi = 0%, 39.34% and 62.98%). The NMR amplitude is dependent on pore volumes while the NMR transverse relaxation time ( T 2) spectrum reflects the characteristics of pore size distribution, which is determined based on a mercury injection (MI) experiment. Using this method, the residual gas distribution was quantified by comparing the T 2 spectrum of the sample measured after imbibition with the sample fully saturated by brine before imbibition. The results showed that capillary trapping efficiency increased with increasing S wi, and above 90% of residual gas existed in pores larger than 1 μm in the spontaneous imbibition experiments. The residual gas wasmore » trapped in pores by different capillary trapping mechanisms under different Ca, leading to the difference of residual gas distribution. The flow channels were mainly composed of micropores (pore radius, r < 1 μm) and mesopores ( r = 1–10 μm) at log Ca = –8.68 and –7.68, while of mesopores and macropores (r > 10 μm) at logCa = –5.68. At both S wi = 0% and 39.34%, residual gas distribution in macropores significantly decreased while that in micropores slightly increased with log Ca increasing to –6.68 and –5.68, respectively.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu (China)
  2. Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu (China); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1572501
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-145434
Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073; ENERGA
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energies (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Energies (Basel); Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 14; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073
Publisher:
MDPI AG
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; capillary number; initial water saturation; capillary trapping; residual gas distribution; nuclear magnetic resonance

Citation Formats

Li, Tao, Wang, Ying, Li, Min, Ji, Jiahao, Chang, Lin, and Wang, Zheming. Study on the Impacts of Capillary Number and Initial Water Saturation on the Residual Gas Distribution by NMR. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3390/en12142714.
Li, Tao, Wang, Ying, Li, Min, Ji, Jiahao, Chang, Lin, & Wang, Zheming. Study on the Impacts of Capillary Number and Initial Water Saturation on the Residual Gas Distribution by NMR. United States. doi:10.3390/en12142714.
Li, Tao, Wang, Ying, Li, Min, Ji, Jiahao, Chang, Lin, and Wang, Zheming. Tue . "Study on the Impacts of Capillary Number and Initial Water Saturation on the Residual Gas Distribution by NMR". United States. doi:10.3390/en12142714. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1572501.
@article{osti_1572501,
title = {Study on the Impacts of Capillary Number and Initial Water Saturation on the Residual Gas Distribution by NMR},
author = {Li, Tao and Wang, Ying and Li, Min and Ji, Jiahao and Chang, Lin and Wang, Zheming},
abstractNote = {The determination of microscopic residual gas distribution is beneficial for exploiting reservoirs to their maximum potential. In this work, both forced and spontaneous imbibition (waterflooding) experiments were performed on a high-pressure displacement experimental setup, which was integrated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to reveal the impacts of capillary number (Ca) and initial water saturation (Swi) on the residual gas distribution over four magnitudes of injection rates (Q = 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mL/min), expressed as Ca (logCa = –8.68, –7.68, –6.68 and –5.68), and three different Swi (Swi = 0%, 39.34% and 62.98%). The NMR amplitude is dependent on pore volumes while the NMR transverse relaxation time (T2) spectrum reflects the characteristics of pore size distribution, which is determined based on a mercury injection (MI) experiment. Using this method, the residual gas distribution was quantified by comparing the T2 spectrum of the sample measured after imbibition with the sample fully saturated by brine before imbibition. The results showed that capillary trapping efficiency increased with increasing Swi, and above 90% of residual gas existed in pores larger than 1 μm in the spontaneous imbibition experiments. The residual gas was trapped in pores by different capillary trapping mechanisms under different Ca, leading to the difference of residual gas distribution. The flow channels were mainly composed of micropores (pore radius, r < 1 μm) and mesopores (r = 1–10 μm) at logCa = –8.68 and –7.68, while of mesopores and macropores (r > 10 μm) at logCa = –5.68. At both Swi = 0% and 39.34%, residual gas distribution in macropores significantly decreased while that in micropores slightly increased with logCa increasing to –6.68 and –5.68, respectively.},
doi = {10.3390/en12142714},
journal = {Energies (Basel)},
number = 14,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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