skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on July 6, 2020

Title: Utilizing the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory to Understand Particle Injections: Their Scale Sizes and Propagation Directions

Abstract

The injection region's formation, scale size, and propagation direction have been debated throughout the years, with new questions arising with increased plasma sheet observations by missions like Cluster and THEMIS. How do temporally and spatially smallscale injections relate to the larger injections historically observed at geosynchronous orbit? How to account for opposing propagation directions—earthward, tailward, and azimuthal—observed by different studies? To address these questions, we used a combination of multisatellite and ground–based observations to knit together a cohesive story explaining injection formation, propagation, and differing spatial scales and timescales. We used a case study to put statistics into context. First, fast earthward flows with embedded small–scale dipolarizing flux bundles transport both magnetic flux and energetic particles earthward, resulting in minutes–long injection signatures. Next, a large–scale injection propagates azimuthally and poleward/tailward, observed in situ as enhanced flux and on the ground in the riometer signal. The large–scale dipolarization propagates in a similar direction and speed as the large–scale electron injection. We suggest small–scale injections result from earthward–propagating, small–scale dipolarizing flux bundles, which rapidly contribute to the large–scale dipolarization. We suggest the large–scale dipolarization is the source of the large–scale electron injection region, such that as dipolarization expands, so does the injection.more » Here, the >90–keV ion flux increased and decreased with the plasma flow, which died at the satellites as global dipolarization engulfed them. We suggest the ion injection region at these energies in the plasma sheet is better organized by the plasma flow.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1];  [5];  [5]
  1. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Boston Univ., MA (United States)
  3. The Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos NM USA
  5. Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1572321
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-25091
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 124; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Heliospheric and Magnetospheric Physics; injections; dipolarization; substorms; injection propagation; particle transport; magnetosphere‐ionosphere coupling

Citation Formats

Gabrielse, Christine, Angelopoulos, Vassilis, Artemyev, Anton, Nishimura, Yukitoshi, Runov, Andrei, Lyons, Larry, Turner, Drew L., Reeves, Geoffrey D., McPherron, Robert, Donovan, Eric, and Spanswick, Emma. Utilizing the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory to Understand Particle Injections: Their Scale Sizes and Propagation Directions. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2018JA025588.
Gabrielse, Christine, Angelopoulos, Vassilis, Artemyev, Anton, Nishimura, Yukitoshi, Runov, Andrei, Lyons, Larry, Turner, Drew L., Reeves, Geoffrey D., McPherron, Robert, Donovan, Eric, & Spanswick, Emma. Utilizing the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory to Understand Particle Injections: Their Scale Sizes and Propagation Directions. United States. doi:10.1029/2018JA025588.
Gabrielse, Christine, Angelopoulos, Vassilis, Artemyev, Anton, Nishimura, Yukitoshi, Runov, Andrei, Lyons, Larry, Turner, Drew L., Reeves, Geoffrey D., McPherron, Robert, Donovan, Eric, and Spanswick, Emma. Sat . "Utilizing the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory to Understand Particle Injections: Their Scale Sizes and Propagation Directions". United States. doi:10.1029/2018JA025588.
@article{osti_1572321,
title = {Utilizing the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory to Understand Particle Injections: Their Scale Sizes and Propagation Directions},
author = {Gabrielse, Christine and Angelopoulos, Vassilis and Artemyev, Anton and Nishimura, Yukitoshi and Runov, Andrei and Lyons, Larry and Turner, Drew L. and Reeves, Geoffrey D. and McPherron, Robert and Donovan, Eric and Spanswick, Emma},
abstractNote = {The injection region's formation, scale size, and propagation direction have been debated throughout the years, with new questions arising with increased plasma sheet observations by missions like Cluster and THEMIS. How do temporally and spatially smallscale injections relate to the larger injections historically observed at geosynchronous orbit? How to account for opposing propagation directions—earthward, tailward, and azimuthal—observed by different studies? To address these questions, we used a combination of multisatellite and ground–based observations to knit together a cohesive story explaining injection formation, propagation, and differing spatial scales and timescales. We used a case study to put statistics into context. First, fast earthward flows with embedded small–scale dipolarizing flux bundles transport both magnetic flux and energetic particles earthward, resulting in minutes–long injection signatures. Next, a large–scale injection propagates azimuthally and poleward/tailward, observed in situ as enhanced flux and on the ground in the riometer signal. The large–scale dipolarization propagates in a similar direction and speed as the large–scale electron injection. We suggest small–scale injections result from earthward–propagating, small–scale dipolarizing flux bundles, which rapidly contribute to the large–scale dipolarization. We suggest the large–scale dipolarization is the source of the large–scale electron injection region, such that as dipolarization expands, so does the injection. Here, the >90–keV ion flux increased and decreased with the plasma flow, which died at the satellites as global dipolarization engulfed them. We suggest the ion injection region at these energies in the plasma sheet is better organized by the plasma flow.},
doi = {10.1029/2018JA025588},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics},
number = 7,
volume = 124,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on July 6, 2020
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Coordinated SuperDARN THEMIS ASI observations of mesoscale flow bursts associated with auroral streamers: FLOW CHANNEL AND AURORAL STREAMERS
journal, January 2014

  • Gallardo-Lacourt, Bea; Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019245

First Results from the THEMIS Mission
journal, June 2008


Auroral electrons
journal, December 1969


Particle energization by a substorm dipolarization
journal, January 2017

  • Kabin, K.; Kalugin, G.; Donovan, E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023459

Concerning the structure of Pi 2 pulsations
journal, January 1985

  • Southwood, D. J.; Hughes, W. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 90, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA090iA01p00386

Simultaneous Measurements of Substorm‐Related Electron Energization in the Ionosphere and the Plasma Sheet
journal, October 2017

  • Sivadas, N.; Semeter, J.; Nishimura, Y.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JA023995

The SuperMAG data processing technique: TECHNIQUE
journal, September 2012

  • Gjerloev, J. W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017683

Coupling of dipolarization front flow bursts to substorm expansion phase phenomena within the magnetosphere and ionosphere: DIPOLARIZATION FRONT AND EXPANSION PHASE
journal, February 2012

  • Lyons, L. R.; Nishimura, Y.; Xing, X.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA017265

Injection region propagation outside of geosynchronous orbit: INJECTION REGION PROPAGATION
journal, November 2010

  • Spanswick, E.; Reeves, G. D.; Donovan, E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA015066

Interpretation of High-Speed Flows in the Plasma Sheet
journal, January 1993

  • Chen, C. X.; Wolf, R. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, Issue A12
  • DOI: 10.1029/93JA02080

High‐resolution global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of bursty bulk flows
journal, June 2015

  • Wiltberger, M.; Merkin, V.; Lyon, J. G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021080

Flow bouncing and electron injection observed by Cluster: FLOW BOUNCING AND ELECTRON INJECTION OBSERVED BY CLUSTER
journal, May 2013

  • Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Panov, E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50134

Statistical characteristics of bursty bulk flow events
journal, January 1994

  • Angelopoulos, V.; Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 99, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/94JA01263

The role of localized inductive electric fields in electron injections around dipolarizing flux bundles: Injections at Dipolarizing Flux Bundles
journal, October 2016

  • Gabrielse, Christine; Harris, Camilla; Angelopoulos, Vassilis
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 121, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023061

Statistical characteristics of particle injections throughout the equatorial magnetotail: Injections throughout the magnetotail
journal, April 2014

  • Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019638

On dipolarization and its relation to the substorm current wedge
journal, January 1991

  • Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 96, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/91JA01953

Motion of the dipolarization front during a flow burst event observed by Cluster: DIPOLARIZATION AND FLOW BURSTS
journal, October 2002

  • Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Klecker, B.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015763

Distribution of energetic oxygen and hydrogen in the near-Earth plasma sheet: ION DISTRIBUTION IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE
journal, May 2015

  • Kronberg, E. A.; Grigorenko, E. E.; Haaland, S. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020882

Two-satellite observations of substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit
journal, May 2001

  • Thomsen, M. F.; Birn, J.; Borovsky, J. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000080

Inverse velocity dispersion of energetic particle bursts inside the plasma sheet
journal, November 1988


Evolution of dipolarization in the near-Earth current sheet induced by Earthward rapid flux transport
journal, January 2009


Proton events in the magnetosphere associated with magnetic bays
journal, August 1967


Stopping flow bursts and their role in the generation of the substorm current wedge
journal, February 2014

  • Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaev, I. A.; Angelopoulos, V.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059309

Substorm ion injections: Geosynchronous observations and test particle orbits in three-dimensional dynamic MHD fields
journal, February 1997

  • Birn, J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Borovsky, J. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 102, Issue A2
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JA03032

Electron fluxes and pitch-angle distributions at dipolarization fronts: THEMIS multipoint observations: ELECTRON FLUXES AND PAD AT DFS
journal, February 2013

  • Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Gabrielse, C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50121

Substorm-induced energetic electron precipitation: Morphology and prediction
journal, April 2015

  • Beharrell, M. J.; Honary, F.; Rodger, C. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020632

Diamagnetic oscillations ahead of stopped dipolarization fronts
journal, March 2014

  • Runov, A.; Sergeev, V. A.; Angelopoulos, V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019384

Propagation characteristics of plasma sheet oscillations during a small storm
journal, January 2008

  • Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008GL033664

Evolution of the dispersionless injection boundary associated with substorms
journal, January 2005


Diversion of plasma due to high pressure in the inner magnetosphere during steady magnetospheric convection: SMC FLUX DIVERSION DUE TO HIGH PRESSURE
journal, May 2012

  • Kissinger, J.; McPherron, R. L.; Hsu, T. -S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017579

Determination of substorm onset timing and location using the THEMIS ground based observatories
journal, January 2007

  • Mende, S. B.; Angelopoulos, V.; Frey, H. U.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030850

Neutral line model of substorms: Past results and present view
journal, June 1996

  • Baker, D. N.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Angelopoulos, V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 101, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/95JA03753

Magnetic field fluctuations during substorm-associated dipolarizations in the nightside plasma sheet around X = −10 R E
journal, January 2005


Substorm Current Wedge Revisited
journal, December 2014


Generation of Pi2 pulsations by bursty bulk flows
journal, November 1999

  • Kepko, Larry; Kivelson, Margaret
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 104, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900361

Magnetic mapping effects of substorm currents leading to auroral poleward expansion and equatorward retreat: Mapping effect causing auroral expansion
journal, January 2015

  • Chu, Xiangning; McPherron, Robert L.; Hsu, Tung-Shin
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020596

Pressure and entropy changes in the flow-braking region during magnetic field dipolarization: PLASMA CHANGES DURING DIPOLARIZATION
journal, October 2010

  • Dubyagin, S.; Sergeev, V.; Apatenkov, S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA015625

Spatial structure and temporal evolution of energetic particle injections in the inner magnetosphere during the 14 July 2013 substorm event
journal, March 2015

  • Gkioulidou, Matina; Ohtani, S.; Mitchell, D. G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020872

Propagating substorm injection fronts
journal, January 1981

  • Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 86, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA086iA08p06713

Modeling the Earth's magnetospheric magnetic field confined within a realistic magnetopause
journal, January 1995

  • Tsyganenko, N. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/94JA03193

On the current sheets surrounding dipolarizing flux bundles in the magnetotail: The case for wedgelets: DIPOLARIZATION FRONT CURRENT SHEET
journal, May 2013

  • Liu, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50092

Theory of thin-filament motion in Earth's magnetotail and its application to bursty bulk flows
journal, July 1999

  • Chen, C. X.; Wolf, R. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 104, Issue A7
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900005

Growth phase of magnetospheric substorms
journal, October 1970


Time-dependent magnetospheric configuration and breakup mapping during a substorm: MAGNETOSPHERIC CONFIGURATION DURING A SUBSTORM
journal, February 2011

  • Kubyshkina, M.; Sergeev, V.; Tsyganenko, N.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA015882

Combined THEMIS and ground-based observations of a pair of substorm-associated electron precipitation events: SUBSTORM ELECTRON PRECIPITATION
journal, February 2012

  • Clilverd, Mark A.; Rodger, Craig J.; Rae, I. Jonathan
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016933

Evaluation of SuperMAG auroral electrojet indices as indicators of substorms and auroral power: SUPERMAG AURORAL ELECTROJET INDICES
journal, December 2011

  • Newell, P. T.; Gjerloev, J. W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016779

A THEMIS multicase study of dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail plasma sheet: DIPOLARIZATION FRONTS IN THE PLASMA SHEET
journal, May 2011

  • Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Zhou, X. -Z.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016316

Energetic O + and H + ions in the plasma sheet: Implications for the transport of ionospheric ions : ENERGETIC O
journal, October 2011

  • Ohtani, S.; Nosé, M.; Christon, S. P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016532

Pitch-angle scattering of energetic protons in the magnetotail current sheet as the dominant source of their isotropic precipitation into the nightside ionosphere
journal, October 1983


Accelerated ions ahead of earthward propagating dipolarization fronts: DIPOLARIZATION FRONT
journal, May 2010

  • Zhou, X. -Z.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sergeev, V. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA015481

Near-equatorial, high-resolution measurements of electron precipitation at L ≃6.6
journal, January 1981

  • Baker, D. N.; Stauning, P.; Hones, E. W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 86, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA086iA04p02295

Correlation of Kp with the substorm-injected plasma boundary
journal, August 1974

  • Mauk, Barry H.; McIlwain, Carl E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 79, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA079i022p03193

Extensive electron transport and energization via multiple, localized dipolarizing flux bundles: HOW MULTIPLE DFBS TRANSPORT/ENERGIZE E−
journal, May 2017

  • Gabrielse, Christine; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Harris, Camilla
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JA023981

The THEMIS Array of Ground-based Observatories for the Study of Auroral Substorms
journal, June 2008


Modeling the global magnetic field of the large-scale Birkeland current systems
journal, December 1996

  • Tsyganenko, Nikolai A.; Stern, David P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 101, Issue A12
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JA02735

Auroral poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs): Their two-dimensional structure and associated dynamics in the plasma sheet
journal, January 2006

  • Zesta, E.; Lyons, L.; Wang, C. -P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004JA010640

Bursty bulk flows in the inner central plasma sheet
journal, January 1992

  • Angelopoulos, V.; Baumjohann, W.; Kennel, C. F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/91JA02701

Plasma Injection During Substorms
journal, January 1987


Ground based identification of dispersionless electron injections
journal, January 2007

  • Spanswick, E.; Donovan, E.; Friedel, R.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028329

Experimental study of magnetospheric motions and the acceleration of energetic electrons during substorms
journal, December 1970


Modeling energetic particle injections in dynamic pulse fields with varying propagation speeds
journal, January 2002


The development of the auroral substorm
journal, April 1964


The substorm current wedge in MHD simulations: SUBSTORM CURRENT WEDGE
journal, June 2013

  • Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50187

Midnight radial profiles of the quiet and growth-phase plasma sheet: The Geotail observations
journal, January 2004


The effects of transient, localized electric fields on equatorial electron acceleration and transport toward the inner magnetosphere: LOCALIZED ELECTRIC FIELDS AND INJECTIONS
journal, October 2012

  • Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017873

Satellite observations of Pi 2 activity at synchronous orbit
journal, January 1983


The substorm current wedge: Further insights from MHD simulations
journal, May 2014

  • Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019863

Earthward flow bursts, auroral streamers, and small expansions
journal, June 2001

  • Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Schödel, R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000306

Modes of convection in the magnetotail
journal, September 2002


Cross-tail expansion of dipolarizing flux bundles: DFB Expansion
journal, April 2015

  • Liu, Jiang; Angelopoulos, V.; Zhou, Xu-Zhi
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA020997

The transient response mechanism and Pi2 pulsations at substorm onset—Review and outlook
journal, November 1984


Magnetic flux transfer in the 5 April 2010 Galaxy 15 substorm: an unprecedented observation
journal, January 2011


Limit on stably trapped particle fluxes
journal, January 1966


Magnetotail energy dissipation during an auroral substorm
journal, September 2016

  • Panov, E. V.; Baumjohann, W.; Wolf, R. A.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3879

THEMIS Ground Based Observatory System Design
journal, December 2007


Characteristics of plasma flows at the inner edge of the plasma sheet: FLOWS AT INNER EDGE OF PLASMA SHEET
journal, April 2011

  • McPherron, R. L.; Hsu, T. -S.; Kissinger, J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA015923

Multiple overshoot and rebound of a bursty bulk flow: MULTIPLE BBF OVERSHOOT AND REBOUND
journal, April 2010

  • Panov, E. V.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL041971

Pulsating aurora from electron scattering by chorus waves
journal, February 2018


Pitch angle distributions of electrons at dipolarization sites during geomagnetic activity: THEMIS observations
journal, December 2014

  • Wang, Kaiti; Lin, Ching‐Huei; Wang, Lu‐Yin
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020176

Radial distributions of equatorial phase space density for outer radiation belt electrons: OUTER BELT ELECTRON PSD DISTRIBUTIONS
journal, May 2012

  • Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Shprits, Y.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051722

Emergence of the active magnetotail plasma sheet boundary from transient, localized ion acceleration: NATURE OF PLASMA SHEET BOUNDARY FLOWS
journal, October 2012

  • Zhou, X. -Z.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA018171

Flow bursts, braking, and Pi2 pulsations
journal, February 2001

  • Kepko, L.; Kivelson, M. G.; Yumoto, K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000158

Multievent study of the correlation between pulsating aurora and whistler mode chorus emissions: PULSATING AURORA-CHORUS CORRELATION
journal, November 2011

  • Nishimura, Y.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016876

Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations
journal, January 2009


Are earthward bursty bulk flows convective or field-aligned?
journal, October 2001

  • Petrukovich, A. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001JA900019

Magnetic flux transport by dipolarizing flux bundles
journal, February 2014

  • Liu, Jiang; Angelopoulos, V.; Zhou, Xu-Zhi
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019395

Braking of high-speed flows in the near-Earth tail
journal, May 1997

  • Shiokawa, K.; Baumjohann, W.; Haerendel, G.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/97GL01062

A diagnosis of the plasma waves responsible for the explosive energy release of substorm onset
journal, November 2018


Magnetic dipolarization with substorm expansion onset
journal, January 2002


Characteristics of ion distribution functions in dipolarizing flux bundles: Event studies: ION DISTRIBUTIONS AT DFBS
journal, June 2017

  • Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Artemyev, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024010

Local structure of the magnetotail current sheet: 2001 Cluster observations
journal, January 2006


Entropy and plasma sheet transport: ENTROPY AND PLASMA SHEET TRANSPORT
journal, May 2009

  • Wolf, R. A.; Wan, Yifei; Xing, X.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014044

Flow braking and the substorm current wedge
journal, September 1999

  • Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Haerendel, G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 104, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900173

On the increasing oscillation period of flows at the tailward retreating flux pileup region during dipolarization
journal, August 2014

  • Panov, E. V.; Baumjohann, W.; Kubyshkina, M. V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020322

Transient flux tubes in the terrestrial magnetosphere
journal, January 1990


Development of auroral streamers in association with localized impulsive injections to the inner magnetotail
journal, February 1999

  • Sergeev, V. A.; Liou, K.; Meng, C. -I.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998GL900311

Multi-satellite measurements of the substorm injection region
journal, October 1990

  • Reeves, G. D.; Fritz, T. A.; Cayton, T. E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 17, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/GL017i011p02015

Energetic particle injections to geostationary orbit: Relationship to flow bursts and magnetospheric state: FLOW BURSTS AND INJECTIONS
journal, October 2012

  • Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaev, I. A.; Dubyagin, S. V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017773

Characterization of geostationary particle signatures based on the ‘Injection Boundary’ Model
journal, January 1983


Multi-point observation of the high-speed flows in the plasma sheet
journal, January 2005


Plasma sheet injections into the inner magnetosphere: Two-way coupled OpenGGCM-RCM model results: OPENGGCM-RCM PLASMA SHEET INJECTIONS
journal, May 2017

  • Cramer, W. D.; Raeder, J.; Toffoletto, F. R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024104

Observation and modeling of energetic particles at synchronous orbit on July 29, 1977
journal, January 1982

  • Baker, D. N.; Fritz, T. A.; Wilken, B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA087iA08p05917

The energetic ion substorm injection boundary
journal, January 1990

  • Lopez, R. E.; Sibeck, D. G.; McEntire, R. W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA095iA01p00109

Spatial Development of the Dipolarization Region in the Inner Magnetosphere
journal, July 2018

  • Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.; Gkioulidou, M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 123, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025443

Magnetospheric plasma pressures in the midnight meridian: Observations from 2.5 to 35 R E
journal, January 1989

  • Spence, Harlan E.; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Walker, Raymond J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 94, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA094iA05p05264

Substorm-injected protons and electrons and the injection boundary model
journal, February 1975

  • Konradi, Andrei; Semar, C. L.; Fritz, T. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 80, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA080i004p00543

Rapid flux transport and plasma sheet reconfiguration
journal, May 2001

  • Schödel, R.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA900159

Magnetospheric and auroral activity during the 18 April 2002 sawtooth event
journal, January 2006

  • Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011111

Modeling the quiet time inner plasma sheet protons
journal, April 2001

  • Wang, Chih-Ping; Lyons, Larry R.; Chen, Margaret W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000377

The Space Physics Environment Data Analysis System (SPEDAS)
journal, January 2019


Characterization of the energy-dependent response of riometer absorption
journal, January 2015

  • Kellerman, A. C.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Makarevich, R. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020027

Substorm dipolarization and recovery
journal, November 1999

  • Baumjohann, W.; Hesse, M.; Kokubun, S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 104, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900282

THEMIS observations of an earthward-propagating dipolarization front
journal, January 2009

  • Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sitnov, M. I.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL038980

Energetic electrons in dipolarization events: Spatial properties and anisotropy
journal, May 2014

  • Birn, J.; Runov, A.; Hesse, M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019738

The localization of Pi 2 pulsations: Ground-satellite observations
journal, January 1983

  • Singer, Howard J.; Hughes, W. Jeffrey; Fougere, Paul F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 88, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA088iA09p07029

Intensity correlations and substorm electron drift effects in the outer radiation belt measured with the OGO 3 and ATS 1 satellites
journal, October 1969


The magnetotail and substorms
journal, January 1973

  • Russell, C. T.; McPherron, R. L.
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 15, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00169321

A source of auroral electrons and the magnetospheric substorm current systems
journal, January 2003


Electron acceleration signatures in the magnetotail associated with substorms: ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN THE MAGNETOTAIL
journal, May 2010

  • Asano, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Retinò, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014587

Bursty bulk flows and dipolarization in MHD simulations of magnetotail reconnection: BURSTY FLOWS AND DIPOLARIZATIONS
journal, January 2011

  • Birn, J.; Nakamura, R.; Panov, E. V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016083

Sources, transport, and distributions of plasma sheet ions and electrons and dependences on interplanetary parameters under northward interplanetary magnetic field: PLASMA SHEET IONS AND ELECTRONS
journal, October 2007

  • Wang, Chih-Ping; Lyons, Larry R.; Nagai, Tsugunobu
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 112, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JA012522

High-energy magnetospheric protons and their dependence on geomagnetic and interplanetary conditions
journal, January 1979

  • Baker, D. N.; Belian, R. D.; Higbie, P. R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 84, Issue A12
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA084iA12p07138