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Title: Evaluation of the WRF lake module (v1.0) and its improvements at a deep reservoir

Abstract

Large lakes and reservoirs play important roles in modulating regionalhydrological cycles and climate; however, their representations in coupledmodels remain uncertain. The existing lake module in the Weather Research andForecasting (WRF) system (hereafter WRF-Lake), although widely used, did notaccurately predict temperature profiles in deep lakes mainly due to its poorlake surface property parameterizations and underestimation of heat transferbetween lake layers. We therefore revised WRF-Lake by improving its(1) numerical discretization scheme; (2) surface property parameterization;(3) diffusivity parameterization for deep lakes; and (4) convection scheme,the outcome of which became WRF-rLake (i.e., revised lake model). Weevaluated the off-line WRF-rLake by comparing simulated and measured watertemperature at the Nuozhadu Reservoir, a deep reservoir in southwesternChina. WRF-rLake performs better than its predecessor by reducing theroot-mean-square error (RMSE) against observed lake surface temperatures(LSTs) from 1.4 to 1.1°C and consistently improving simulatedvertical temperature profiles. We also evaluated the sensitivity of simulatedwater temperature and surface energy fluxes to various modeled lakeprocesses. We found (1) large changes in surface energy balance fluxes (up to60 W m -2) associated with the improved surface propertyparameterization and (2) that the simulated lake thermal structure dependsstrongly on the light extinction coefficient and vertical diffusivity.Although currently only evaluated at the Nuozhadu Reservoir, we expect thatthese model parameterization and structural improvements couldmore » be general andtherefore recommend further testing at other deep lakes and reservoirs.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [2];  [4]
  1. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1572013
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geoscientific Model Development (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: Geoscientific Model Development (Online); Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 5]; Journal ID: ISSN 1991-9603
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Wang, Fushan, Ni, Guangheng, Riley, William J, Tang, Jinyun, Zhu, Dejun, and Sun, Ting. Evaluation of the WRF lake module (v1.0) and its improvements at a deep reservoir. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-2119-2019.
Wang, Fushan, Ni, Guangheng, Riley, William J, Tang, Jinyun, Zhu, Dejun, & Sun, Ting. Evaluation of the WRF lake module (v1.0) and its improvements at a deep reservoir. United States. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-2119-2019.
Wang, Fushan, Ni, Guangheng, Riley, William J, Tang, Jinyun, Zhu, Dejun, and Sun, Ting. Wed . "Evaluation of the WRF lake module (v1.0) and its improvements at a deep reservoir". United States. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-2119-2019. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1572013.
@article{osti_1572013,
title = {Evaluation of the WRF lake module (v1.0) and its improvements at a deep reservoir},
author = {Wang, Fushan and Ni, Guangheng and Riley, William J and Tang, Jinyun and Zhu, Dejun and Sun, Ting},
abstractNote = {Large lakes and reservoirs play important roles in modulating regionalhydrological cycles and climate; however, their representations in coupledmodels remain uncertain. The existing lake module in the Weather Research andForecasting (WRF) system (hereafter WRF-Lake), although widely used, did notaccurately predict temperature profiles in deep lakes mainly due to its poorlake surface property parameterizations and underestimation of heat transferbetween lake layers. We therefore revised WRF-Lake by improving its(1) numerical discretization scheme; (2) surface property parameterization;(3) diffusivity parameterization for deep lakes; and (4) convection scheme,the outcome of which became WRF-rLake (i.e., revised lake model). Weevaluated the off-line WRF-rLake by comparing simulated and measured watertemperature at the Nuozhadu Reservoir, a deep reservoir in southwesternChina. WRF-rLake performs better than its predecessor by reducing theroot-mean-square error (RMSE) against observed lake surface temperatures(LSTs) from 1.4 to 1.1°C and consistently improving simulatedvertical temperature profiles. We also evaluated the sensitivity of simulatedwater temperature and surface energy fluxes to various modeled lakeprocesses. We found (1) large changes in surface energy balance fluxes (up to60 W m-2) associated with the improved surface propertyparameterization and (2) that the simulated lake thermal structure dependsstrongly on the light extinction coefficient and vertical diffusivity.Although currently only evaluated at the Nuozhadu Reservoir, we expect thatthese model parameterization and structural improvements could be general andtherefore recommend further testing at other deep lakes and reservoirs.},
doi = {10.5194/gmd-12-2119-2019},
journal = {Geoscientific Model Development (Online)},
number = [5],
volume = [12],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

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