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Title: First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole

Abstract

We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) images of M87, using observations from April 2017 at 1.3 mm wavelength. These images show a prominent ring with a diameter of ~40 μas, consistent with the size and shape of the lensed photon orbit encircling the "shadow" of a supermassive black hole. The ring is persistent across four observing nights and shows enhanced brightness in the south. To assess the reliability of these results, we implemented a two-stage imaging procedure. In the first stage, four teams, each blind to the others' work, produced images of M87 using both an established method (CLEAN) and a newer technique (regularized maximum likelihood). This stage allowed us to avoid shared human bias and to assess common features among independent reconstructions. In the second stage, we reconstructed synthetic data from a large survey of imaging parameters and then compared the results with the corresponding ground truth images. This stage allowed us to select parameters objectively to use when reconstructing images of M87. Across all tests in both stages, the ring diameter and asymmetry remained stable, insensitive to the choice of imaging technique. We describe the EHT imaging procedures, the primary image features in M87, and themore » dependence of these features on imaging assumptions.« less

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
Contributing Org.:
The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1571628
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-30387
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 875; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; general relativity; radio interferometry; black hole physics; galaxies: individual (M87); galaxies: jets; techniques: high angular resolution; techniques: image processing; techniques: interferometric

Citation Formats

Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E., Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew, Chan, Chi-kwan, Chatterjee, Shami, Chatterjee, Koushik, Chen, Ming-Tang, Chen, Yongjun, Cho, Ilje, Christian, Pierre, Conway, John E., Cordes, James M., Crew, Geoffrey B., Cui, Yuzhu, Davelaar, Jordy, De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, Deane, Roger, Dempsey, Jessica, Desvignes, Gregory, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Eatough, Ralph P., Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent L., Fomalont, Ed, Fraga-Encinas, Raquel, Freeman, William T., Friberg, Per, Fromm, Christian M., Gómez, José L., Galison, Peter, Gammie, Charles F., García, Roberto, Gentaz, Olivier, Georgiev, Boris, Goddi, Ciriaco, Gold, Roman, Gu, Minfeng, Gurwell, Mark, Hada, Kazuhiro, Hecht, Michael H., Hesper, Ronald, Ho, Luis C., Ho, Paul, Honma, Mareki, Huang, Chih-Wei L., Huang, Lei, H. Hughes, David, Ikeda, Shiro, Inoue, Makoto, Issaoun, Sara, James, David J., Jannuzi, Buell T., Janssen, Michael, Jeter, Britton, Jiang, Wu, Johnson, Michael D., Jorstad, Svetlana, Jung, Taehyun, Karami, Mansour, Karuppusamy, Ramesh, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Keating, Garrett K., Kettenis, Mark, Kim, Jae-Young, Kim, Junhan, Kim, Jongsoo, Kino, Motoki, Koay, Jun Yi, Koch, Patrick M., Koyama, Shoko, Kramer, Michael, Kramer, Carsten, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Kuo, Cheng-Yu, Lauer, Tod R., Lee, Sang-Sung, Li, Yan-Rong, Li, Zhiyuan, Lindqvist, Michael, Liu, Kuo, Liuzzo, Elisabetta, Lo, Wen-Ping, Lobanov, Andrei P., Loinard, Laurent, Lonsdale, Colin, Lu, Ru-Sen, MacDonald, Nicholas R., Mao, Jirong, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Marscher, Alan P., Martí-Vidal, Iván, Matsushita, Satoki, Matthews, Lynn D., Medeiros, Lia, Menten, Karl M., Mizuno, Yosuke, Mizuno, Izumi, Moran, James M., Moriyama, Kotaro, Moscibrodzka, Monika, Müller, Cornelia, Nagai, Hiroshi, Nagar, Neil M., Nakamura, Masanori, Narayan, Ramesh, Narayanan, Gopal, Natarajan, Iniyan, Neri, Roberto, Ni, Chunchong, Noutsos, Aristeidis, Okino, Hiroki, Olivares, Héctor, Oyama, Tomoaki, Özel, Feryal, Palumbo, Daniel C. M., Patel, Nimesh, Pen, Ue-Li, Pesce, Dominic W., Piétu, Vincent, Plambeck, Richard, PopStefanija, Aleksandar, Porth, Oliver, Prather, Ben, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Psaltis, Dimitrios, Pu, Hung-Yi, Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh, Rao, Ramprasad, Rawlings, Mark G., Raymond, Alexander W., Rezzolla, Luciano, Ripperda, Bart, Roelofs, Freek, Rogers, Alan, Ros, Eduardo, Rose, Mel, Roshanineshat, Arash, Rottmann, Helge, Roy, Alan L., Ruszczyk, Chet, Ryan, Benjamin R., Rygl, Kazi L. J., Sánchez, Salvador, Sánchez-Arguelles, David, Sasada, Mahito, Savolainen, Tuomas, Schloerb, F. Peter, Schuster, Karl-Friedrich, Shao, Lijing, Shen, Zhiqiang, Small, Des, Sohn, Bong Won, SooHoo, Jason, Tazaki, Fumie, Tiede, Paul, Tilanus, Remo P. J., Titus, Michael, Toma, Kenji, Torne, Pablo, Trent, Tyler, Trippe, Sascha, Tsuda, Shuichiro, van Bemmel, Ilse, van Langevelde, Huib Jan, van Rossum, Daniel R., Wagner, Jan, Wardle, John, Weintroub, Jonathan, Wex, Norbert, Wharton, Robert, Wielgus, Maciek, Wong, George N., Wu, Qingwen, Young, André, Young, Ken, Younsi, Ziri, Yuan, Feng, Yuan, Ye-Fei, Zensus, J. Anton, Zhao, Guangyao, Zhao, Shan-Shan, Zhu, Ziyan, Farah, Joseph R., Meyer-Zhao, Zheng, Michalik, Daniel, Nadolski, Andrew, Nishioka, Hiroaki, Pradel, Nicolas, Primiani, Rurik A., Souccar, Kamal, Vertatschitsch, Laura, and Yamaguchi, Paul. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0e85.
Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E., Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew, Chan, Chi-kwan, Chatterjee, Shami, Chatterjee, Koushik, Chen, Ming-Tang, Chen, Yongjun, Cho, Ilje, Christian, Pierre, Conway, John E., Cordes, James M., Crew, Geoffrey B., Cui, Yuzhu, Davelaar, Jordy, De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, Deane, Roger, Dempsey, Jessica, Desvignes, Gregory, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Eatough, Ralph P., Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent L., Fomalont, Ed, Fraga-Encinas, Raquel, Freeman, William T., Friberg, Per, Fromm, Christian M., Gómez, José L., Galison, Peter, Gammie, Charles F., García, Roberto, Gentaz, Olivier, Georgiev, Boris, Goddi, Ciriaco, Gold, Roman, Gu, Minfeng, Gurwell, Mark, Hada, Kazuhiro, Hecht, Michael H., Hesper, Ronald, Ho, Luis C., Ho, Paul, Honma, Mareki, Huang, Chih-Wei L., Huang, Lei, H. Hughes, David, Ikeda, Shiro, Inoue, Makoto, Issaoun, Sara, James, David J., Jannuzi, Buell T., Janssen, Michael, Jeter, Britton, Jiang, Wu, Johnson, Michael D., Jorstad, Svetlana, Jung, Taehyun, Karami, Mansour, Karuppusamy, Ramesh, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Keating, Garrett K., Kettenis, Mark, Kim, Jae-Young, Kim, Junhan, Kim, Jongsoo, Kino, Motoki, Koay, Jun Yi, Koch, Patrick M., Koyama, Shoko, Kramer, Michael, Kramer, Carsten, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Kuo, Cheng-Yu, Lauer, Tod R., Lee, Sang-Sung, Li, Yan-Rong, Li, Zhiyuan, Lindqvist, Michael, Liu, Kuo, Liuzzo, Elisabetta, Lo, Wen-Ping, Lobanov, Andrei P., Loinard, Laurent, Lonsdale, Colin, Lu, Ru-Sen, MacDonald, Nicholas R., Mao, Jirong, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Marscher, Alan P., Martí-Vidal, Iván, Matsushita, Satoki, Matthews, Lynn D., Medeiros, Lia, Menten, Karl M., Mizuno, Yosuke, Mizuno, Izumi, Moran, James M., Moriyama, Kotaro, Moscibrodzka, Monika, Müller, Cornelia, Nagai, Hiroshi, Nagar, Neil M., Nakamura, Masanori, Narayan, Ramesh, Narayanan, Gopal, Natarajan, Iniyan, Neri, Roberto, Ni, Chunchong, Noutsos, Aristeidis, Okino, Hiroki, Olivares, Héctor, Oyama, Tomoaki, Özel, Feryal, Palumbo, Daniel C. M., Patel, Nimesh, Pen, Ue-Li, Pesce, Dominic W., Piétu, Vincent, Plambeck, Richard, PopStefanija, Aleksandar, Porth, Oliver, Prather, Ben, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Psaltis, Dimitrios, Pu, Hung-Yi, Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh, Rao, Ramprasad, Rawlings, Mark G., Raymond, Alexander W., Rezzolla, Luciano, Ripperda, Bart, Roelofs, Freek, Rogers, Alan, Ros, Eduardo, Rose, Mel, Roshanineshat, Arash, Rottmann, Helge, Roy, Alan L., Ruszczyk, Chet, Ryan, Benjamin R., Rygl, Kazi L. J., Sánchez, Salvador, Sánchez-Arguelles, David, Sasada, Mahito, Savolainen, Tuomas, Schloerb, F. Peter, Schuster, Karl-Friedrich, Shao, Lijing, Shen, Zhiqiang, Small, Des, Sohn, Bong Won, SooHoo, Jason, Tazaki, Fumie, Tiede, Paul, Tilanus, Remo P. J., Titus, Michael, Toma, Kenji, Torne, Pablo, Trent, Tyler, Trippe, Sascha, Tsuda, Shuichiro, van Bemmel, Ilse, van Langevelde, Huib Jan, van Rossum, Daniel R., Wagner, Jan, Wardle, John, Weintroub, Jonathan, Wex, Norbert, Wharton, Robert, Wielgus, Maciek, Wong, George N., Wu, Qingwen, Young, André, Young, Ken, Younsi, Ziri, Yuan, Feng, Yuan, Ye-Fei, Zensus, J. Anton, Zhao, Guangyao, Zhao, Shan-Shan, Zhu, Ziyan, Farah, Joseph R., Meyer-Zhao, Zheng, Michalik, Daniel, Nadolski, Andrew, Nishioka, Hiroaki, Pradel, Nicolas, Primiani, Rurik A., Souccar, Kamal, Vertatschitsch, Laura, & Yamaguchi, Paul. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0e85.
Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E., Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew, Chan, Chi-kwan, Chatterjee, Shami, Chatterjee, Koushik, Chen, Ming-Tang, Chen, Yongjun, Cho, Ilje, Christian, Pierre, Conway, John E., Cordes, James M., Crew, Geoffrey B., Cui, Yuzhu, Davelaar, Jordy, De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, Deane, Roger, Dempsey, Jessica, Desvignes, Gregory, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Eatough, Ralph P., Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent L., Fomalont, Ed, Fraga-Encinas, Raquel, Freeman, William T., Friberg, Per, Fromm, Christian M., Gómez, José L., Galison, Peter, Gammie, Charles F., García, Roberto, Gentaz, Olivier, Georgiev, Boris, Goddi, Ciriaco, Gold, Roman, Gu, Minfeng, Gurwell, Mark, Hada, Kazuhiro, Hecht, Michael H., Hesper, Ronald, Ho, Luis C., Ho, Paul, Honma, Mareki, Huang, Chih-Wei L., Huang, Lei, H. Hughes, David, Ikeda, Shiro, Inoue, Makoto, Issaoun, Sara, James, David J., Jannuzi, Buell T., Janssen, Michael, Jeter, Britton, Jiang, Wu, Johnson, Michael D., Jorstad, Svetlana, Jung, Taehyun, Karami, Mansour, Karuppusamy, Ramesh, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Keating, Garrett K., Kettenis, Mark, Kim, Jae-Young, Kim, Junhan, Kim, Jongsoo, Kino, Motoki, Koay, Jun Yi, Koch, Patrick M., Koyama, Shoko, Kramer, Michael, Kramer, Carsten, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Kuo, Cheng-Yu, Lauer, Tod R., Lee, Sang-Sung, Li, Yan-Rong, Li, Zhiyuan, Lindqvist, Michael, Liu, Kuo, Liuzzo, Elisabetta, Lo, Wen-Ping, Lobanov, Andrei P., Loinard, Laurent, Lonsdale, Colin, Lu, Ru-Sen, MacDonald, Nicholas R., Mao, Jirong, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Marscher, Alan P., Martí-Vidal, Iván, Matsushita, Satoki, Matthews, Lynn D., Medeiros, Lia, Menten, Karl M., Mizuno, Yosuke, Mizuno, Izumi, Moran, James M., Moriyama, Kotaro, Moscibrodzka, Monika, Müller, Cornelia, Nagai, Hiroshi, Nagar, Neil M., Nakamura, Masanori, Narayan, Ramesh, Narayanan, Gopal, Natarajan, Iniyan, Neri, Roberto, Ni, Chunchong, Noutsos, Aristeidis, Okino, Hiroki, Olivares, Héctor, Oyama, Tomoaki, Özel, Feryal, Palumbo, Daniel C. M., Patel, Nimesh, Pen, Ue-Li, Pesce, Dominic W., Piétu, Vincent, Plambeck, Richard, PopStefanija, Aleksandar, Porth, Oliver, Prather, Ben, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Psaltis, Dimitrios, Pu, Hung-Yi, Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh, Rao, Ramprasad, Rawlings, Mark G., Raymond, Alexander W., Rezzolla, Luciano, Ripperda, Bart, Roelofs, Freek, Rogers, Alan, Ros, Eduardo, Rose, Mel, Roshanineshat, Arash, Rottmann, Helge, Roy, Alan L., Ruszczyk, Chet, Ryan, Benjamin R., Rygl, Kazi L. J., Sánchez, Salvador, Sánchez-Arguelles, David, Sasada, Mahito, Savolainen, Tuomas, Schloerb, F. Peter, Schuster, Karl-Friedrich, Shao, Lijing, Shen, Zhiqiang, Small, Des, Sohn, Bong Won, SooHoo, Jason, Tazaki, Fumie, Tiede, Paul, Tilanus, Remo P. J., Titus, Michael, Toma, Kenji, Torne, Pablo, Trent, Tyler, Trippe, Sascha, Tsuda, Shuichiro, van Bemmel, Ilse, van Langevelde, Huib Jan, van Rossum, Daniel R., Wagner, Jan, Wardle, John, Weintroub, Jonathan, Wex, Norbert, Wharton, Robert, Wielgus, Maciek, Wong, George N., Wu, Qingwen, Young, André, Young, Ken, Younsi, Ziri, Yuan, Feng, Yuan, Ye-Fei, Zensus, J. Anton, Zhao, Guangyao, Zhao, Shan-Shan, Zhu, Ziyan, Farah, Joseph R., Meyer-Zhao, Zheng, Michalik, Daniel, Nadolski, Andrew, Nishioka, Hiroaki, Pradel, Nicolas, Primiani, Rurik A., Souccar, Kamal, Vertatschitsch, Laura, and Yamaguchi, Paul. Wed . "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0e85. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1571628.
@article{osti_1571628,
title = {First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole},
author = {Akiyama, Kazunori and Alberdi, Antxon and Alef, Walter and Asada, Keiichi and Azulay, Rebecca and Baczko, Anne-Kathrin and Ball, David and Baloković, Mislav and Barrett, John and Bintley, Dan and Blackburn, Lindy and Boland, Wilfred and Bouman, Katherine L. and Bower, Geoffrey C. and Bremer, Michael and Brinkerink, Christiaan D. and Brissenden, Roger and Britzen, Silke and Broderick, Avery E. and Broguiere, Dominique and Bronzwaer, Thomas and Byun, Do-Young and Carlstrom, John E. and Chael, Andrew and Chan, Chi-kwan and Chatterjee, Shami and Chatterjee, Koushik and Chen, Ming-Tang and Chen, Yongjun and Cho, Ilje and Christian, Pierre and Conway, John E. and Cordes, James M. and Crew, Geoffrey B. and Cui, Yuzhu and Davelaar, Jordy and De Laurentis, Mariafelicia and Deane, Roger and Dempsey, Jessica and Desvignes, Gregory and Dexter, Jason and Doeleman, Sheperd S. and Eatough, Ralph P. and Falcke, Heino and Fish, Vincent L. and Fomalont, Ed and Fraga-Encinas, Raquel and Freeman, William T. and Friberg, Per and Fromm, Christian M. and Gómez, José L. and Galison, Peter and Gammie, Charles F. and García, Roberto and Gentaz, Olivier and Georgiev, Boris and Goddi, Ciriaco and Gold, Roman and Gu, Minfeng and Gurwell, Mark and Hada, Kazuhiro and Hecht, Michael H. and Hesper, Ronald and Ho, Luis C. and Ho, Paul and Honma, Mareki and Huang, Chih-Wei L. and Huang, Lei and H. Hughes, David and Ikeda, Shiro and Inoue, Makoto and Issaoun, Sara and James, David J. and Jannuzi, Buell T. and Janssen, Michael and Jeter, Britton and Jiang, Wu and Johnson, Michael D. and Jorstad, Svetlana and Jung, Taehyun and Karami, Mansour and Karuppusamy, Ramesh and Kawashima, Tomohisa and Keating, Garrett K. and Kettenis, Mark and Kim, Jae-Young and Kim, Junhan and Kim, Jongsoo and Kino, Motoki and Koay, Jun Yi and Koch, Patrick M. and Koyama, Shoko and Kramer, Michael and Kramer, Carsten and Krichbaum, Thomas P. and Kuo, Cheng-Yu and Lauer, Tod R. and Lee, Sang-Sung and Li, Yan-Rong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lindqvist, Michael and Liu, Kuo and Liuzzo, Elisabetta and Lo, Wen-Ping and Lobanov, Andrei P. and Loinard, Laurent and Lonsdale, Colin and Lu, Ru-Sen and MacDonald, Nicholas R. and Mao, Jirong and Markoff, Sera and Marrone, Daniel P. and Marscher, Alan P. and Martí-Vidal, Iván and Matsushita, Satoki and Matthews, Lynn D. and Medeiros, Lia and Menten, Karl M. and Mizuno, Yosuke and Mizuno, Izumi and Moran, James M. and Moriyama, Kotaro and Moscibrodzka, Monika and Müller, Cornelia and Nagai, Hiroshi and Nagar, Neil M. and Nakamura, Masanori and Narayan, Ramesh and Narayanan, Gopal and Natarajan, Iniyan and Neri, Roberto and Ni, Chunchong and Noutsos, Aristeidis and Okino, Hiroki and Olivares, Héctor and Oyama, Tomoaki and Özel, Feryal and Palumbo, Daniel C. M. and Patel, Nimesh and Pen, Ue-Li and Pesce, Dominic W. and Piétu, Vincent and Plambeck, Richard and PopStefanija, Aleksandar and Porth, Oliver and Prather, Ben and Preciado-López, Jorge A. and Psaltis, Dimitrios and Pu, Hung-Yi and Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh and Rao, Ramprasad and Rawlings, Mark G. and Raymond, Alexander W. and Rezzolla, Luciano and Ripperda, Bart and Roelofs, Freek and Rogers, Alan and Ros, Eduardo and Rose, Mel and Roshanineshat, Arash and Rottmann, Helge and Roy, Alan L. and Ruszczyk, Chet and Ryan, Benjamin R. and Rygl, Kazi L. J. and Sánchez, Salvador and Sánchez-Arguelles, David and Sasada, Mahito and Savolainen, Tuomas and Schloerb, F. Peter and Schuster, Karl-Friedrich and Shao, Lijing and Shen, Zhiqiang and Small, Des and Sohn, Bong Won and SooHoo, Jason and Tazaki, Fumie and Tiede, Paul and Tilanus, Remo P. J. and Titus, Michael and Toma, Kenji and Torne, Pablo and Trent, Tyler and Trippe, Sascha and Tsuda, Shuichiro and van Bemmel, Ilse and van Langevelde, Huib Jan and van Rossum, Daniel R. and Wagner, Jan and Wardle, John and Weintroub, Jonathan and Wex, Norbert and Wharton, Robert and Wielgus, Maciek and Wong, George N. and Wu, Qingwen and Young, André and Young, Ken and Younsi, Ziri and Yuan, Feng and Yuan, Ye-Fei and Zensus, J. Anton and Zhao, Guangyao and Zhao, Shan-Shan and Zhu, Ziyan and Farah, Joseph R. and Meyer-Zhao, Zheng and Michalik, Daniel and Nadolski, Andrew and Nishioka, Hiroaki and Pradel, Nicolas and Primiani, Rurik A. and Souccar, Kamal and Vertatschitsch, Laura and Yamaguchi, Paul},
abstractNote = {We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) images of M87, using observations from April 2017 at 1.3 mm wavelength. These images show a prominent ring with a diameter of ~40 μas, consistent with the size and shape of the lensed photon orbit encircling the "shadow" of a supermassive black hole. The ring is persistent across four observing nights and shows enhanced brightness in the south. To assess the reliability of these results, we implemented a two-stage imaging procedure. In the first stage, four teams, each blind to the others' work, produced images of M87 using both an established method (CLEAN) and a newer technique (regularized maximum likelihood). This stage allowed us to avoid shared human bias and to assess common features among independent reconstructions. In the second stage, we reconstructed synthetic data from a large survey of imaging parameters and then compared the results with the corresponding ground truth images. This stage allowed us to select parameters objectively to use when reconstructing images of M87. Across all tests in both stages, the ring diameter and asymmetry remained stable, insensitive to the choice of imaging technique. We describe the EHT imaging procedures, the primary image features in M87, and the dependence of these features on imaging assumptions.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/ab0e85},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 875,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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Figure 1 Figure 1: Top panels: aggregate baseline coverage for EHT observations of M87, combining observations on all four days. The left panel shows short-baseline coverage, comprised of ALMA interferometer baselines and intra-site EHT baselines (SMA–JCMT and ALMA–APEX). These short baselines probe angular scales larger than 0.1". The right panel shows long-baselinemore » coverage, comprised of all inter-site EHT baselines. These long baselines span angular scales from 25 to 170 μas. Each point denotes a single scan, which range in duration from 4 to 7 minutes. Bottom panels: the full baseline coverage on M87 for each observation. In all panels, the dashed circles show baseline lengths corresponding to the indicated fringe spacings (0.2" for the upper-left panel; 25 and 50 μas for the remaining panels).« less

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Works referenced in this record:

Superresolution Full-polarimetric Imaging for Radio Interferometry with Sparse Modeling
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  • Akiyama, Kazunori; Ikeda, Shiro; Pleau, Mollie
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Capabilities and prospects of the East Asia Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network
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Reconstructing Video of Time-Varying Sources From Radio Interferometric Measurements
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A new view on the M 87 jet origin: Turbulent loading leading to large-scale episodic wiggling
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Interferometric Imaging Directly with Closure Phases and Closure Amplitudes
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High-Resolution Linear Polarimetric Imaging for the Event Horizon Telescope
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Jet-Launching Structure Resolved Near the Supermassive Black Hole in M87
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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole
journal, April 2019

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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation
journal, April 2019

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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration
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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring
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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole
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The Black hole mass in m87 from Gemini/Nifs Adaptive Optics Observations
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The Black hole Mass, Stellar Mass-To-Light Ratio, and dark halo in m87
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The Innermost Collimation Structure of the m87 jet down to ∼10 Schwarzschild Radii
journal, September 2013


HIGH-SENSITIVITY 86 GHz (3.5 mm) VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF M87: DEEP IMAGING OF THE JET BASE AT A RESOLUTION OF 10 SCHWARZSCHILD RADII
journal, January 2016


Pilot KaVA monitoring on the M 87 jet: Confirming the inner jet structure and superluminal motions at sub-pc scales
journal, July 2017

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Super-resolution imaging with radio interferometry using sparse modeling
journal, September 2014

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Mojave: Monitoring of jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with vlba Experiments. xi. Spectral Distributions
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PRECL: A new method for interferometry imaging from closure phase
journal, April 2016

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Testing General Relativity with the Shadow Size of Sgr A *
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Testing the No-Hair Theorem with Observations in the Electromagnetic Spectrum. ii. Black hole Images
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Dynamical Imaging with Interferometry
journal, November 2017

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Resolved magnetic-field structure and variability near the event horizon of Sagittarius A
journal, December 2015


The Scattering and Intrinsic Structure of Sagittarius A* at Radio Wavelengths
journal, September 2018

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Kinematics of Parsec-scale Jets of Gamma-Ray Blazars at 43 GHz within the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR Program
journal, September 2017

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The limb-brightened jet of M87 down to the 7 Schwarzschild radii scale
journal, August 2018


Long-term millimeter VLBI monitoring of M 87 with KVN at milliarcsecond resolution: nuclear spectrum
journal, February 2018


The Inner Jet of the Radio Galaxy [OBJECTNAME STATUS="LINKS"]M87[/OBJECTNAME]
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Superresolution Interferometric Imaging with Sparse Modeling Using Total Squared Variation: Application to Imaging the Black Hole Shadow
journal, May 2018

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An interferometry imaging beauty contest
conference, October 2004

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INTERFEROMETRIC MONITORING OF GAMMA-RAY BRIGHT AGNs. I. THE RESULTS OF SINGLE-EPOCH MULTIFREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS
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MOJAVE. XIII. PARSEC-SCALE AGN JET KINEMATICS ANALYSIS BASED ON 19 YEARS OF VLBA OBSERVATIONS AT 15 GHz
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The Supermassive Black Hole of M87 and the Kinematics of Its Associated Gaseous Disk
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A High‐Resolution X‐Ray Image of the Jet in M87
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Dual differential polarimetry. A technique to recover polarimetric information from dual-polarization observations
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The ALMA Phasing System: A Beamforming Capability for Ultra-high-resolution Science at (Sub)Millimeter Wavelengths
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Kinematics of the jet in M 87 on scales of 100–1000 Schwarzschild radii
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The Parabolic jet Structure in m87 as a Magnetohydrodynamic Nozzle
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Parabolic Jets from the Spinning Black Hole in M87
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Maximum Entropy Image Restoration in Astronomy
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