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Title: Structural Imaging of Native Cryo-Preserved Secondary Cell Walls Reveals the Presence of Macrofibrils and Their Formation Requires Normal Cellulose, Lignin and Xylan Biosynthesis

Abstract

The woody secondary cell walls of plants are the largest repository of renewable carbon biopolymers on the planet. These walls are made principally from cellulose and hemicelluloses and are impregnated with lignin. Despite their importance as the main load bearing structure for plant growth, as well as their industrial importance as both a material and energy source, the precise arrangement of these constituents within the cell wall is not yet fully understood. We have adapted low temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) for imaging the nanoscale architecture of angiosperm and gymnosperm cell walls in their native hydrated state. Our work confirms that cell wall macrofibrils, cylindrical structures with a diameter exceeding 10 nm, are a common feature of the native hardwood and softwood samples. We have observed these same structures in Arabidopsis thaliana secondary cell walls, enabling macrofibrils to be compared between mutant lines that are perturbed in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin formation. Our analysis indicates that the macrofibrils in Arabidopsis cell walls are dependent upon the proper biosynthesis, or composed, of cellulose, xylan, and lignin. This study establishes that cryo-SEM is a useful additional approach for investigating the native nanoscale architecture and composition of hardwood and softwood secondary cell wallsmore » and demonstrates the applicability of Arabidopsis genetic resources to relate fibril structure with wall composition and biosynthesis.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
Contributing Org.:
Cambridge Univ. Botanic Garden
OSTI Identifier:
1571535
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1616748
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001090
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Plant Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Frontiers in Plant Science Journal Volume: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1664-462X
Publisher:
Frontiers Research Foundation
Country of Publication:
Switzerland
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; scanning electron microscopy; cell walls; macrofibrils; cellulose; xylan; lignin; softwood; hardwood

Citation Formats

Lyczakowski, Jan J., Bourdon, Matthieu, Terrett, Oliver M., Helariutta, Ykä, Wightman, Raymond, and Dupree, Paul. Structural Imaging of Native Cryo-Preserved Secondary Cell Walls Reveals the Presence of Macrofibrils and Their Formation Requires Normal Cellulose, Lignin and Xylan Biosynthesis. Switzerland: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3389/fpls.2019.01398.
Lyczakowski, Jan J., Bourdon, Matthieu, Terrett, Oliver M., Helariutta, Ykä, Wightman, Raymond, & Dupree, Paul. Structural Imaging of Native Cryo-Preserved Secondary Cell Walls Reveals the Presence of Macrofibrils and Their Formation Requires Normal Cellulose, Lignin and Xylan Biosynthesis. Switzerland. doi:10.3389/fpls.2019.01398.
Lyczakowski, Jan J., Bourdon, Matthieu, Terrett, Oliver M., Helariutta, Ykä, Wightman, Raymond, and Dupree, Paul. Wed . "Structural Imaging of Native Cryo-Preserved Secondary Cell Walls Reveals the Presence of Macrofibrils and Their Formation Requires Normal Cellulose, Lignin and Xylan Biosynthesis". Switzerland. doi:10.3389/fpls.2019.01398.
@article{osti_1571535,
title = {Structural Imaging of Native Cryo-Preserved Secondary Cell Walls Reveals the Presence of Macrofibrils and Their Formation Requires Normal Cellulose, Lignin and Xylan Biosynthesis},
author = {Lyczakowski, Jan J. and Bourdon, Matthieu and Terrett, Oliver M. and Helariutta, Ykä and Wightman, Raymond and Dupree, Paul},
abstractNote = {The woody secondary cell walls of plants are the largest repository of renewable carbon biopolymers on the planet. These walls are made principally from cellulose and hemicelluloses and are impregnated with lignin. Despite their importance as the main load bearing structure for plant growth, as well as their industrial importance as both a material and energy source, the precise arrangement of these constituents within the cell wall is not yet fully understood. We have adapted low temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) for imaging the nanoscale architecture of angiosperm and gymnosperm cell walls in their native hydrated state. Our work confirms that cell wall macrofibrils, cylindrical structures with a diameter exceeding 10 nm, are a common feature of the native hardwood and softwood samples. We have observed these same structures in Arabidopsis thaliana secondary cell walls, enabling macrofibrils to be compared between mutant lines that are perturbed in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin formation. Our analysis indicates that the macrofibrils in Arabidopsis cell walls are dependent upon the proper biosynthesis, or composed, of cellulose, xylan, and lignin. This study establishes that cryo-SEM is a useful additional approach for investigating the native nanoscale architecture and composition of hardwood and softwood secondary cell walls and demonstrates the applicability of Arabidopsis genetic resources to relate fibril structure with wall composition and biosynthesis.},
doi = {10.3389/fpls.2019.01398},
journal = {Frontiers in Plant Science},
number = ,
volume = 10,
place = {Switzerland},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01398

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Cited by: 5 works
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Molecular architecture of softwood revealed by solid-state NMR
    journal, October 2019